Victoria A. Greenfield

Senior Economist
Off Site Office


B.S. in agricultural economics, Cornell University; Ph.D. in agricultural and resource economics, UC Berkeley; M.S. in agricultural and resource economics, UC Berkeley


Victoria Greenfield is a senior economist at the RAND Corporation, and a visiting scholar at George Mason University. Her affiliation with RAND spans over a decade. Greenfield specializes in national security and international social and economic issues, including transnational crime, drug production, and trafficking. In addition, she advises federal agencies and others on strategic planning, performance evaluation, and program management. Her latest publications explore means of assessing the harms of criminal activities, mechanisms for reducing opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan, alternative approaches to supply-oriented drug policy, police department investments in information technology, benefits and costs of border security, and costs of overseas basing options. Greenfield has also written extensively on international trade and globalization and defense contracting. Previously, she has held the positions of ADM Crowe Chair in the Economics of the Defense Industrial Base at the U.S. Naval Academy; Senior Economist for Trade and Agriculture at the U.S. President's Council of Economic Advisers; Chief International Economist in the Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs at the U.S. Department of State, where she advised senior leadership on proposed trade and environmental agreements, including the Kyoto Protocol. She began her career at the Congressional Budget Office, where she examined the budgetary and economic effects of international and domestic policies. She also served on the "Committee on Estimating Costs to the Department of Justice of Increased Border Enforcement by the Department of Homeland Security," a project of the National Academies.

Concurrent Non-RAND Positions

Visiting Scholar, Department of Criminology, Law and Society, George Mason University

Selected Publications

Victoria A. Greenfield, Keith Crane, Craig Bond, Nathan Chandler, Jill Luoto, and Olga Oliker, Reducing the Cultivation of Opium Poppies in Southern Afghanistan, RAND Corporation (RR-1075-INL), 2015

Victoria A. Greenfield and Letizia Paoli, "A framework to assess the harms of crimes," British Journal of Criminology, 53(5):864–885, 2013

Letizia Paoli and Victoria A. Greenfield, "Harm: A neglected concept in criminology, a necessary benchmark for crime control policy," European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 21:359-77, 2013

Letizia Paoli, Victoria A. Greenfield, and Andries Zoutendijk, "The harms of cocaine trafficking: Applying a new framework for assessment," Journal of Drug Issues, 43(4):407-436, 2013

Victoria A. Greenfield and Letizia Paoli, "If supply-oriented drug policy is broken, can harm reduction help fix it? Melding disciplines and methods to advance international drug-control policy," International Journal of Drug Policy, 2011

Ryan R. Brady and Victoria A. Greenfield, "Competing explanations of U.S. defense industry consolidation in the 1990s and their policy implications," Contemporary Economic Policy, 28(2):288-306, 2010

Victoria A. Greenfield, Letizia Paoli, and Peter Reuter, "Is medicinal opium production Afghanistan's answer?: Lessons from India and the world market," Journal of Drug Policy Analysis, 2(1), 2009

Letizia Paoli, Victoria A. Greenfield, and Peter Reuter, The World Supply of Heroin: Can Supply Be Cut?Oxford University Press, 2009