What effect does U.S. Army spending have on a local economy? An interactive tool presents estimates of the direct, indirect, and induced effects on economic activity in each of the 435 congressional districts for fiscal years 2012–2014.
Soon after the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq (Operation IRAQI FREEDOM) began in 2003, RAND Arroyo Center began documenting an authoritative account of the planning and execution of combat and stability operations in Iraq. The result will inform those organizing, training, and equipping military forces for future joint and multinational operations.
This report presents findings on the economic activity supported by total Army spending in each of the 435 congressional districts for fiscal years 2012-2014. Using input/output models, researchers estimated that in FY 2014, the Army directly spent approximately $121 million in the median congressional district (in 2012 dollars), translating into about 4,200 jobs and contributing to $375 million of economic output.
Recent experience suggests that the targets of gray zone campaigns recognize them for what they are — aggressive efforts to overturn the status quo. Gray zone aggression often prompts exactly the sort of reactions it's meant to avoid.
While the U.S. Cyber Command is preparing the nation's defenses for the coming ramp-up in cyberwarfare-like attacks, the messages spread instantly by hordes of attackers through social media may not be receiving the attention they deserve.
The way the U.S. uses risk in national security has too often been ill-defined and misleading. The country needs a more focused and precise understanding of risk at the highest levels. In the process of developing one, risk processes should be judged by how they contribute to the making of effective strategy.