photo by Reuters/Ahmad Al-Rubaye/Pool
Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javed Zarif speaking at a Sept. 8 news conference in Baghdad
This commentary appeared on United States Institute of Peace's Iran Primer on September 11, 2013.
Iran has mixed feelings and conflicting interests in the Syrian crisis. Tehran has a strategic interest in opposing chemical weapons due to its own horrific experience during the 1980–1988 war with Iraq. For years, President Saddam Hussein's military used chemical weapons that killed thousands of Iranian soldiers. So Iran actually shares interests with the United States, European nations and the Arab League in opposing any use of chemical weapons.
But the Islamic Republic also has compelling reasons to continue supporting Damascus. The Syrian regime is Iran's closest ally in the Middle East and the geographic link to its Hezbollah partners in Lebanon. As a result, Tehran vehemently opposes U.S. intervention or any action that might change the military balance against President Bashar Assad.
The Iran-Syria alliance is more than a marriage of convenience. Tehran and Damascus have common geopolitical, security, and economic interests. Syria was one of only two Arab nations (the other being Libya) to support Iran's fight against Saddam Hussein, and it was an important conduit for weapons to an isolated Iran. Furthermore, Hafez Assad, Bashar's father, allowed Iran to help create Hezbollah, the Shiite political movement in Lebanon. Its militia, trained by Iran's Revolutionary Guards, has been an effective tool against Syria's archenemy, Israel.