An independent evaluation of the Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC) examined the strengths and weaknesses of its efforts to support drug discovery efforts through a unique, open access model of public-private collaboration.
Each year, drug users in the U.S. spend about $100 billion on cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamine. This has been stable over the decade, but there have been important shifts. In 2000, users spent much more on cocaine than marijuana; in 2010, the opposite was true.
In order to think sensibly about illicit drug markets, policymakers need to have some idea of how big those markets are. This helps estimate revenues going to criminal organizations, improve treatment and prevention decisions, and evaluate drug policies.
The current terrorism risk insurance act will expire in 2014 and Congress again is considering the appropriate government role in terrorism insurance markets. If the act expires and the take-up rate for terrorism insurance falls, then the U.S. would be less resilient to future terrorist attacks.
A coalition of California counties formed the Student Mental Health Initiative to target student mental health issues in K-12 schools and higher education. RAND evaluated first-year progress toward goals and objectives, as well as networking, collaboration, online resources, and training and educational programs.
A coalition of California counties formed the Stigma and Discrimination Reduction Initiative to combat stigma and discrimination against people dealing with mental illness. RAND evaluated first-year progress toward program goals and objectives, as well as content, reach, and short- and long-term outcomes.
After a decade of experimentation with reforms that give health providers financial incentives to improve performance, relatively little is known about how to best execute such strategies or judge their success.
The California Mental Health Services Authority (CalMHSA) formed a statewide prevention and early intervention program to reduce adverse outcomes for people experiencing mental illness. Experts evaluated the program's first-year progress across three initiatives: suicide prevention, student mental health, and stigma and discrimination reduction.
English language arts and mathematics items from a group of nationally and internationally administered “deeper learning” tests were more cognitively demanding than previously studied state tests. Demand also varied by subject and item format. These and other findings provide a benchmark for comparing how well new tests assess deeper learning.
Digital literacy plays an important role in a child's ability to succeed in school and later life. Incorporating technology into early childhood education help close the “digital divide” that separates low-income students and their more-advantaged peers.
The Survey of Health and Living Status of the Middle-Aged and Elderly in Taiwan measured difficulty with one or more of seven physical functions. A group-based trajectory model identified common trajectories.
New “deeper learning” tests tied to the Common Core State Standards could improve teaching practice. Tests that mirror high-quality instruction, that are part of a systemic change effort, and that are accompanied by training and support to help teachers interpret and use test scores effectively could have the best chance at positive impact.
Future U.S. efforts should focus on finding areas of agreement with partner nations and possibly convening networks of people in those nations who can implement changes and then providing the necessary resources and technical expertise.
The average annual market cost attributable to dementia is estimated to be $28,501: $13,900 for nursing-home care, $6,200 for out-of-pocket expenditure, and $5,700 for formal home care; Medicare spent $2,700 of the total.
Two key analytic tools can be used to evaluate how coastal protection and restoration decisions made now will play out over time, even given an uncertain future. For example, a community weighing whether to implement a marsh-building project can see how the project fares against different rates of rising sea levels over time.
Large states cut spending on prison education programs by an average of 10 percent between the 2009 and 2012 fiscal years, while medium-sized states cut spending by 20 percent. While the drop appears to have resulted from budget cuts prompted by the economic downturn, evidence suggests that the curtailment of prison education could increase prison system costs in the longer term.
Many Western countries have health and social care standards but implement and apply these standards in different ways. Different regulatory mechanisms and policy instruments encourage and ensure continuous quality improvement.
The California Mental Health Services Authority formed a statewide prevention and early intervention program to reduce adverse outcomes for people experiencing mental illness. RAND evaluated first-year progress toward program goals and objectives, as well as resources, capacities, and short- and long-term activities.
A coalition of California counties formed the Student Mental Health Initiative to target student mental health issues in K-12 schools and higher education. RAND evaluated the initiative's first-year activities, reach, and outcomes.