Conceptualization of physical and mental health and associations on different scales may be different for Asian immigrants than for other groups. Interpretation of SF-36 Health Survey scores needs to account for cultural differences.
36-Item Short Form Survey from the RAND Medical Outcomes Study
As part of the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS), a multi-year, multi-site study to explain variations in patient outcomes, RAND developed the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). SF-36 is a set of generic, coherent, and easily administered quality-of-life measures. These measures rely upon patient self-reporting and are now widely utilized by managed care organizations and by Medicare for routine monitoring and assessment of care outcomes in adult patients.
Terms and Conditions for Using the SF-36 (2009)
MOS 36-Item Short Form Survey Instrument (SF-36)
Scoring Instructions for MOS 36-Item Short Form Survey Instrument (SF-36) (2009)
Reliability of an Arabic Version of the RAND 36-Item Health Survey and its Equivalence to the US-English Version
Coons, SJ, Alabdulmohsin, SA, Draugalis, JR, & Hays, RD. (1998), Medical Care, 36, 428-432.
This article contains a discussion of reliability of using the Arabic SF-36 instrument.
More Information about Summary Scores
For those interested in information about the physical and mental health summary scores and the work done to create a single score, we suggest the following articles:
What is the Relationship Between the Minimally Important Difference and Health State Utility Values? The Case of the SF-6-D
Walters SJ, Brazier JE. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, Vol. 1, No. 1, April 2003, p. 4.
The Estimation of a Preference-based Measure of Health from the SF-36
Brazier J, Roberts J, Deverill M. Journal of Health Economics, Vol. 21, No. 2, March 2002, pp. 271-292.
Mapping the SF-12 to the EuroQol EQ-5D Index in a National US Sample
Franks P, Lubetkin EI, Gold MR, Tancredi DJ, Jia H. Medical Decision Making, Vol. 24, No. 3, May-June 2004, pp. 247-254.
Measuring Function and Well-Being: The Medical Outcomes Study Approach
Stewart AL, Ware JE., eds. (1992)
User's Manual for the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Core Measures of Health-Related Quality of Life1994
This manual describes self-administered patient questionnaires that were developed for patients participating in the Medical Outcomes Study, a multi-year, nonexperimental study of variations in physician practice styles and patient outcomes in...
Other instruments from the Medical Outcomes Study
This website offers a list of all instruments that have been approved by the Scientific Advisory Committee of the Medical Outcomes Trust.