Promising Practices

Below are guides and commentary that present ways to improve police recruitment and retention generally and workforce diversity specifically, both in the United States and abroad. Also included are guides developed for other professions (e.g., military, health, education) that may offer lessons for the law enforcement community. These resources are listed here in reverse chronological order, alphabetically by year.

Featured Guide or Commentary

Recruiting and Retaining a Diverse, High Quality Police Force

Recruitment and retention of officers is an increasing challenge for police agencies, and many urban police agencies report particular difficulty in recruiting minority and female officers. The RAND Center on Quality Policing convened a national summit in June 2008. Speakers discussed police workforce issues, strategies, lessons that could be learned from other organizations, and in-depth analyses of police recruiting and retention in selected cities.

CA Post Best Practices Guide

The California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training (CA POST) has a guide to best practices on recruitment and retention issues. The PDF has information on demographics, hiring trends, survey results, and other information in addition to its list of best practices. It states that more attention will need to be paid to these issues by leaders in law enforcement.

Guides and Commentary


A Problem-Oriented Approach to Preventing Sex Discrimination in Police Recruitment [PDF]

Prenzler, Tim


Asians are urged to pin on the badge

Gurwitt, Rob


Assessment Center Approach to Police Officer Selection

Kolpack, B. D.


Assessment Center Handbook

Page, B. T.


Avoiding the high cost of turnover

Dwayne Orrick


Biodata and equal opportunities in police recruitment and selection

Gilbert, P. A.


Breaking the Mold - Find out how a police department got a sense of humor (and new recruits) as well as other tales from some of this year's Creative Excellence Award winners

Martinez, Michelle Neely


Bureau of Justice Assistance


California Department of Corrections: Peace Officer Recruitment Training, Lesson Plan


Career fair for police officers


Case study - The Met's arresting strategy to attract potential recruits


Center for Problem-Oriented Policing


Changing Work Force

Martin, D.; Levine, M.


Citizen police academies: observing goals, objectives, and recent trends

Bumphus, Vic W.; Gaines, Larry K.; Blakely, Curt R.


Community Recruiter

Johnson, Kevin


Cop Crunch: Identifying Strategies for Dealing with the Recruiting and Hiring Crisis in Law Enforcement [PDF]

Taylor, Bruce; Kubu, Bruce; Fridell, Lorie; Rees, Carter; Jordan, Tom; Cheney, Jason


Correctional Officer and Medical Technical Assistant Recruitment Handbook


Creating a Presence Online

Rogers, Donna


Criminal Records Bureau: Delivering safer recruitment? [PDF]


Developing a Partnership to Enhance Police Recruitment and Retention

Osofsky, H. J.; Dralle, P.; Greenleaf, W.; Pennington, R.


Employee development programs

Pape, John L.


Enhancing the Personnel Selection Process for the Future Needs of a County Marshal's Office

Wayman, Bernice M.


Enough of a good thing: is there still a real need for the Graduate Entry Scheme?

Hill, Susan; Smithers, Alan


Entry-level police selection: the assessment center is an alternative

Pynes, Joan; Bernardin, H. John


Evaluation of the New York City Police Cadet Corps, 1986-1989

Pate, Antony; Hamilton, Edwin E.


FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


Focus on the Police Recruitment and Education Program


Fort Worth's Citizens on Patrol Program [PDF]

Hilson, Janice


Fraternal Order of Police


Fresh tactics help police attract recruits

Gentile, Annie


From Dragnet to the Internet: One Police Department Extends Its Reach

Malinowski, Sean W.; Kalish, David J.; Parks, Bernard C.


Future of Women in Policing: Mandates for Action


FutureForce: A Guide to Building the 21st Century Community Corrections Workforce [PDF]

Stinchcomb, Jeanne B.; McCampbell, Susan W.; Layman, Elizabeth P.


Gulf States Regional Center for Public Safety Innovations


Heroes for Hire: How Defense Department Reductions Can Benefit Your Department

Bumgarner, Michael I.; Cromartie, Eugene R.


Home Office - Police Research Series


Homeland Security Police Administration: Recruitment, Retention and Organizational Strategies

Pascarella, Joseph E.


Honors interns: Recruiting for the future

Kennedy, Kathleen E.


How Can Small Law Enforcement Agencies Achieve Ethnic and Gender Diversity Within Their Command Ranks by the Year 2006?

Shiner, D.


How effectively does your police agency recruit and retain women?

Moore, Margaret M.


Human Capital: Sustained Attention to Strategic Human Capital Management Needed [PDF]

Yvonne D. Jones


Human Resource Roundtable: A Recruitment and Risk Management Tool

Clark, David W.; Olson, Joseph W.; Porter, Lowell M.; Liechner, Robert M.


I want you! : the evolution of the all-volunteer force

Rostker, Bernard; Rand Corporation.,


Improving the Selection of U.S. Border Patrol Agents: Screening for Counterproductivity

Leamon, Julia A.


Innovations in police recruitment and hiring : Hiring in the Spirit of Service [PDF]

Scrivner, Ellen M.


Innovative and successful affirmative action recruitment programs in California law enforcement

Fulton, Robert B.


International Association of Chiefs of Police


Lateral Entry -- A Move Toward the Future

Nix, J. E.


Law and Order Magazine


Law enforcement exploring: A recruiting alternative

Higgins, Stephen E.; Labelle, Robert


Law Enforcement Hiring Practices and Narrowing the Applicant Pool: A Case Study

Decker, Lisa K.; Huckabee, Robert G.


Law Enforcement Recruiting Software

Mahoney, Mark


Law Enforcement Volunteerism: Leveraging Resources to Enhance Public Safety

Kolb, Nancy


Learning To Survive: Making It Realistic Improves Retention

Weiss, Jim; Dresser, Mary


Lengthening the Stride: Recognizing Diversity as an Asset [PDF]


Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) Conducts One-Year Test

Williams, W. L.; Eide, R. W.


Making good cops in the twenty-first century: Emerging issues for the effective recruitment, selection and training of police in the United States and abroad

White,Michael D.; Escobar,Gipsy


Marketing strategies for attracting and retaining Generation X police officers

Charrier, Kim


Marketing the Smaller Agency

Sprafka, Harvey E.


Mentoring programs help new employees

Edmundson, James E.


Military Enlistment of Hispanic Youth: Obstacles and Opportunities

Beth J. Asch; Christopher Buck; Jacob Alex Klerman; Meredith Kleykamp; David S. Loughran


Minority recruitment: A working model

Tangel, Walter A.; Morabito, Andrew


National Criminal Justice Reference Service


National Institute of Justice


Negligent hiring and retention: A cause for concern

MacConnell, R. Monte


Networking Guide to Recruitment, Selection and Probationary Training of Police Officers in Major Departments of the United States of America

Strawbridge, Peter; Strawbridge, Deirdre


New Approach Swells Volunteer Ranks for Tempe, Arizona Police Department

Marquez, N.


Not everyone gets a trophy: how to manage generation y

Bruce, T


Office of Community-Oriented Policing Services


Online Police Resources: How Departmental Web Sites and Internet Services are Making a Difference

Rogers, Donna


Optimising the Organisational Commitment of Police Officers: Background and Summary of the Research and Guidelines for Management [PDF]

Beck, Karen


Passing the Police Recruit Assessment Process

Crow, David; Huntley, Andrea; Crowther, Samuel; Jones, Helen


Peace officer recruitment and retention : best practices [PDF]

Lee, Lori Ann


Peace Officer Recruitment and Retention: Best Practices


Pennsylvania State Police, your career starts here


People With Abilities: The Untapped Resource

Weiss, Jim; Davis, Mickey


Personnel Marketing in Recruiting New Officers for the Police Basic Principles of Forward-Looking Personnel Planning (From Nachwuchswerbung fuer den Polizeivollugsdienst, P 5-22 - See NCJ-80610)

Olszewski, H.


Pink and Blue: Outcomes Associated With the Integration of Open Gay and Lesbian Personnel in the San Diego Police Department

Belkin, Aaron; McNichol, Jason


Plague of Small Agencies: Turnover

Hoffman, J.


Police Assessment Resource Center


Police Executive Research Forum


Police Foundation


Police Officer Candidate Assessment and Selection

Decicco, David A.


Police officer selection: a handbook for law enforcement administrators

Moriarty, Anthony R.; Field, Mark W.


Police Officer Selection: A Handbook for Law Enforcement Administrators

Moriarty, Anthony R.; Field, Mark W.


Police personnel recruitment and special training programs

Talcove, Haywood; Moulder, Evelina R.


Police Recruiting: Hiring Strategies

Strandberg, K. W.


Police recruitment and retention in the contemporary urban environment : a national discussion of personnel experiences and promising practices from the front lines

Wilson, Jeremy M.; Grammich, Clifford A.; Rand Infrastructure Safety and Environment (Organization),; Rand Center on Quality Policing.,; Rand Corporation.,; United States. Dept. of Justice. Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.,; National Instit


Police recruitment selection procedures


Police recruitment: The way forward

Watson, John; Robinson, Emily


Police Turnover

Orrick, W. Dwayne


Police--United States -- Police Officer Selection: A Handbook for Law Enforcement Administrations by Anthony R. Moriarty and Mark W. Field

Casper, Juliet M.; Funk, T. Markus


Police-community relations in Cincinnati

Riley, Kevin Jack; Turner, Susan; Macdonald, John M.; Ridgeway, Gregory Kirk; Schell, Terry L.; Wilson, Jeremy M.; Dixon, Travis L.; Fain, Terry; Barnes-Proby, Dionne; Fulton, Brent; Rand Infrastructure Safety and Environment (Organization). Public Safety


Policewomen, Policemen, or Both?: Recruitment and Training Implications for Responses to Woman Battering

Belknap, J.


Polygraph screening of candidates for police work in large police agencies in the United States: a survey of practices, policies

Horvath, Frank


POST Recruitment & Retention: Best Practices Update [PDF]


Practical Approaches to Employee Retention

Dahm, Jim


Praise and Recognition: The Important of Social Support in Law Enforcement

Gove, Tracey G.


Preparatory police academies: an alternative approach to law enforcement recruitment and training


Principles for promoting police integrity: Examples of promising police practices and policies [PDF]


Proven Steps for Recruiting Women

Johnson, Robert Roy


Proven Steps for Recruiting Women

Kasper, Jody


Race and equal opportunities in the police service: a programme for action


Real-Life Recruiting

Martinez, Liz


Reasons for Choosing a Police Career: Changes Over Two Decades

Foley, Pamela F.; Guarneri, Christina; Kelly, Mary E.


Reconciling higher educational standards and minority recruitment : the New York City model [PDF]

Williams, Hubert


Recruiting & retaining women: A self-assessment guide for law enforcement [PDF]


Recruiting Challenges for the Smaller Department

Matthews, Kurt; Kilpatrick, Tom


Recruiting Means Marketing, Not Just Hiring

Bock, W.


Recruiting Minority Officers

Streit, Corinne


Recruiting Quality Applicants

Sharp, A. G.


Recruiting Replacements

LeSage, Jon


Recruiting women

Jones, Robin


Recruiting women police officers

Prussel, Deborah; Lonsway Kimberly, A.


Recruiting Women to Policing: Practical Strategies That Work

Milgram, Donna


Recruiting, Integrating and Retaining Women Police Officers: Strategies That Work

Polisar, J.; Milgram, D.


Recruiting, Retaining, and Promoting Women: The Success of the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Department's Women's Network

Maglione, Roslyn


Recruitment and Hiring in Law Enforcement: Crisis or an Opportunity for Change?

Scrivner, Ellen


Recruitment and Retention of Qualified Police Personnel: A Best Practices Guide

McKeever, Jack; Kranda, April


Recruitment and Retention: Lessons for the New Orleans Police Department [PDF]

Rostker, Bernard D.; Hix, William M.; Wilson, Jeremy


Recruitment and selection of chief police officers : guidance on appointment processes


Recruitment Dilemma: Quick Fixes, Warm Bodies and the Eternal Search for Quality

Tate, Hugh


Recruitment for the Future

Kolpack, B. D.


Recruitment in the Turkish police

Caglar, A.


Recruitment strategies: A case study in police recruitment

Spawn, Mark A.


Recruitment, Selection, and Retention: A Matter of Commitment

Hyams, M.


Reserve Officers: A Valuable Resource

Hedlund, Karey; Burke, Tod W.


Resolving discrimination in the promotion of Fort Wayne police officers

Charles, Michael T.


School to Work: A Recruitment Model for the 21st Century [PDF]

Wirthman, Joseph W.


Screening Office Hires Thousands at Prison Agencies

Fairchild, B.


Seattle police officer recruitment: audit and agenda for action


Selecting A Police Chief: A Handbook for Local Government [PDF]


Special Data Issue: Police Personnel Recruitment and Special Training Programs


Spotlight on ... Recruiting IT personnel

Sheley, Elizabeth


Starting From Scratch

Feuer Domash, Shelly


Strategic Marketing Plan for the Peace Officer Recruitment Section

Hagen, Katie S.


Strategic Marketing Plan for the Peace Officer Recruitment Section, 2002

Hagen, Katie S.


Strategies for Improving Officer Recruitment in the San Diego Police Department

Greg Ridgeway; Nelson Lim; Brian Gifford; Christopher Koper; Carl Matthies; Sara Hajiamiri; Alexis Huynh


Strategies for Recruiting the Nation's Finest

Kanable, Rebecca


Successful recruitment and retention of police officers: a guide for public safety managers

Hulsey, Floyd S.


Surfing for Success: Using the Web to Improve Recruitment

Brandon, Harry; Lippman, Barry


Survival in an "All Boys Club": Policewomen and Their Fight for Acceptance

Rabe-Hemp, Cara


Technology and Recruitment: Connecticut Police Chiefs Association Uses Television Commercial to Attract New Officers

Salvatore, Anthony J., Sr.


Tenure: Policy and Practice [PDF]

Mundy, Gary


The Challenge to Lead: Issues in Law Enforcement Leadership.

Institute for Law Enforcement Administration


The guide to police recruitment & promotion : the assessment centre process

Tozer, C. M.


The Law Enforcement Candidate Ride-Along: A Supplemental Selection Tool

Sokolove, BA; Field, MW


The Los Angeles School Police: a case study in officer retention

Todd, David Wheaton


The New York City Police Cadet Corps: final evaluation report

Pate, Antony M.; Hamilton, Edwin E.


The recruitment, retention and progression of ethnic minority officers : action plan


The recruitment, retention and progression of ethnic minority officers : targets


The Urban Institute


The Use of Assessment Centers for Law Enforcement Selection and Promotion

Miller, Robert L.


The use of part-time sworn personnel and the impact on recruiting and retention

Frost, Thomas A.


To protect and to serve : enhancing the efficiency of LAPD recruiting

Lim, Nelson; Matthies, Carl; Ridgeway, Gregory Kirk; Gifford, Brian; Rand Infrastructure Safety and Environment (Organization),; Rand Corporation.,


U.S. Department of Justice


Using Visual Technology for Recruitment

Ellis, Gene; Marshall, Greg; Skinner, Chris; Smith, Gary


Utilizing Reserves: Getting the Most From Your Volunteers

Wolf, Ross; Russo, Chuck


Volunteer Programs: Enhancing Public Safety by Leveraging Resources [PDF]


Wanted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)

Boettcher, E.


Weeding Out the Bad Seeds

Mills-Senn, Pamela


Who Wants This Job?

Feuer Domash, Shelly


Women as Police Supervisors in the Twenty-First Century: A Decade of Promotional Practices by Gender in Three Major Police Agencies

Grennan, S.; Munoz, R.


Women in Law Enforcement: Tips for Successful Recruitment

Johnson, N.