Publications on Law Enforcement
Discusses an array of methods that have been used to assess, using data on stops made by police officers, the existence or extent of racially biased policing.
Testimony presented before the House Homeland Security Committee, Subcommittee on Intelligence, Information Sharing and Terrorism Risk Assessment on May 26, 2010.
Recruiting and Retaining America's Finest: Evidence-Based Lessons for Police Workforce Planning — 2010
Shares results of a survey, sent to every U.S. police agency with at least 300 sworn officers, on recruitment and retention practices. Finds that police compensation, city size, and crime rates affected recruiting. Advertising and incentives had little effect on the number of recruits. Cohort sizes highlighted management challenges. To facilitate comparative and longitudinal staffing analyses, ongoing national data collection is recommended.
Today's Police and Sheriff Recruits: Insights from the Newest Members of America's Law Enforcement Community — 2010
For much of the last decade, police and sheriff's departments faced considerable challenges in attracting and retaining recruits. This volume summarizes a 2008–2009 survey fielded to recent police officer and sheriff's deputy recruits nationwide. The authors focus on how understanding modern recruits can help departments refine their recruitment practices and develop a workforce well suited to community-oriented policing.
RAND researchers explored the U.S. and English forensic DNA analysis systems to find out whether England has capitalized more fully on their crime-fighting potential than the U.S. system, processing samples more quickly and providing more database hits for law enforcement.
The Challenge of Domestic Intelligence in a Free Society: A Multidisciplinary Look at the Creation of a U.S. Domestic Counterterrorism Intelligence Agency — 2009
Whether U.S. terrorism-prevention efforts match the threat continues to be central in policy debate. Part of this debate is whether the United States needs a dedicated domestic counterterrorism intelligence agency. This book examines such an agency's possible capability, comparing its potential effectiveness with that of current efforts, and its acceptability to the public, as well as various balances and trade-offs involved.
Cincinnati Police Department Traffic Stops: Applying RAND's Framework to Analyze Racial Disparities — 2009
In 2002, the Cincinnati Police Department (CPD) joined with other agencies and organizations to improve police-community relations in the city. This report focuses on the analysis of racial disparities in traffic stops in Cincinnati. The authors find no evidence of racial differences between the stops of black and those of similarly situated nonblack drivers, but some issues can exacerbate the perception of racial bias.
Doubly Robust Internal Benchmarking and False Discovery Rates for Detecting Racial Bias in Police Stops — 2009
Presents a statistical method to flag police officers who may potentially exhibit racial bias when making pedestrian stops.
This first national estimate of the economic cost of methamphetamine (meth) use in the United States suggests that costs reached $23.4 billion in 2005. The analysis, with a lower-bound estimate of $16.2 billion and an upper-bound estimate of $48.3 billion, considers the burden of addiction, premature death, drug treatment, lost productivity, crime and criminal justice, health care, production and environmental hazards, and child endangerment.
A study of the involvement of organized-crime and terrorist groups in product counterfeiting. Case studies of film piracy illustrate the problem of criminal — and perhaps terrorist — groups using this new high-payoff, low-risk way to fund their activities. Cooperation among law enforcement and governments worldwide is needed to combat intellectual-property theft, which threatens the global information economy, public safety, and national security.
Based on the results of four surveys carried out in 2008-2009, this report describes the state of policing in Dallas, Texas. These surveys collected data on the opinions of randomly selected Dallas residents, people who had a recent contact with an officer of the Dallas Police Department (DPD), DPD officers, and retail business owners in Dallas. This first wave of survey data will act as a benchmark against which to assess DPD in the future.
As part of a 2002 collaborative agreement between the Cincinnati Police Department (CPD), the American Civil Liberties Union, and the Fraternal Order of Police, the RAND Corporation annually assesses whether the parties are achieving improving police-community relations in Cincinnati. CPD polices differently than it did in 2001. But without a concerted effort, black Cincinnati residents will likely remain less satisfied than whites with CPD.
Police Recruitment and Retention in the Contemporary Urban Environment: A National Discussion of Personnel Experiences and Promising Practices from the Front Lines — 2009
A summary of the presentations, discussions, and opinions offered by panelists at a National Summit on Police Recruitment and Retention in the Contemporary Urban Environment held at RAND in June 2008. Topics examined include changing police workforce issues, strategies being employed, lessons that could be learned from other organizations such as the military, and in-depth analyses of police recruiting and retention in selected cities.
This book helps the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) achieve its recruiting and diversity goals by offering ways to improve productivity and efficiency in the recruiting process. It identifies potential untapped recruiting markets, provides a model of viable candidates to target recruitment and prioritize applicants while still reaching diversity hiring goals, and recommends ways to improve background-investigation processes.
WINNER — Honorable Mention
2009 IACP/Sprint Excellence in Law Enforcement Research Award
Understanding Forfeitures: An Analysis of the Relationship Between Case Details and Forfeiture Among TEOAF High-Forfeiture and Major Cases — 2009
The Treasury Executive Office for Asset Forfeiture (TEOAF) administers the Treasury Forfeiture Fund (TFF), which receives deposits of nontax forfeitures made by current and former Treasury agencies. Participating agencies use TFF funds to disrupt and dismantle criminal enterprises. This report examines the relationship between targeted funding support of major financial investigations and the forfeiture outcomes of such investigations.
This chapter examines the security situation in Afghanistan, and asks three questions. What are Afghan perceptions of the security environment? How do these perceptions vary across the country? How do Afghans feel about their security institutions, especially the Afghan National Police (ANP) and Afghan National Army (ANA)? The chapter argues that Afghans continue to believe that insecurity is the most significant problem facing their country.Continued focus must be maintained on building the capacity of the Afghan security forces to ensure the security of the Afghan population, especially in the most insecure areas of the country.
This research brief summarizes work determining whether (1) racial distribution of New York City Police Department stops suggests racial bias, (2) certain officers disproportionately stop nonwhites, and (3) there are racial differences after stops.
Evaluation of the New York City Police Department Firearm Training and Firearm-Discharge Review Process — 2008
In January 2007, New York City Police Commissioner Raymond W. Kelly asked the RAND Corporation to examine the quality and completeness of the New York City Police Department's firearm-training program and identify potential improvements in it and in the police department's firearm-discharge review process. This monograph reports the observations, findings, and recommendations of that study.
The Influence of Race in Police-Civilian Interactions: A Content Analysis of Videotaped Interactions Taken During Cincinnati Police Traffic Stops — 2008
313 randomly sampled video recordings from police cars on traffic stops in Cincinnati, Ohio were content analyzed to help facilitate understanding of police-civilian relations
Occupational Safety and Health for Public Safety Employees: Assessing the Evidence and the Implications for Public Policy — 2008
Police officers, firefighters, and other public safety workers face exceptionally high rates of injury and fatality relative to the general workforce. This document provides an analysis of the risk factors associated with different aspects of public safety occupations, to help policymakers in their efforts to improve the health and safety of these employees.
One of the questions in the fight against terrorism is whether the United States needs a counterterrorism domestic intelligence agency separate from law enforcement. Drawing on an analysis of current counterterrorism efforts, an examination the domestic intelligence agencies in six other democracies, and interviews with intelligence and law enforcement experts, this volume lays out the relevant considerations for creating such an agency.
The San Diego Police Department (SDPD) has been operating below its authorized size in recent years. To bridge its personnel gap, the department needs to maximize its recruiting while minimizing officer attrition. To accomplish this goal, the department sought assistance from RAND to improve its recruiting efforts and suggest ways to improve the diversity of its recruits. This monograph describes RAND's effort to assist SDPD's recruiting program.
Analysis of Racial Disparities in the New York Police Department's Stop, Question, and Frisk Practices — 2007
Raw statistics for encounters between New York City police officers and pedestrians suggest large racial disparities — 89 percent of 2006 stops involved nonwhites. The New York City Police Department asked RAND to help it understand this and identify recommendations for addressing potential problems. RAND researchers analyzed 2006 pedestrian-police encounters, finding small racial differences in rates of frisk, search, use of force, and arrest.
An assessment of the progress of the community-policing and violence-prevention programs in Oakland funded by Measure Y, a 10-year initiative to reduce violence in the city. Implementation of community policing has been delayed by lack of problem-solving police officers and poor community participation, but violence-prevention programs have been implemented as planned. Recommendations are made for improving programs and oversight.
This research brief summarizes second-year findings. Although there is no evidence of systematic racial bias in Cincinnati Police Department vehicle stops, other police actions have racially disparate impacts that fuel perceptions of racial bias.