Cover: Within-day Temporal Patterns of Smoking, Withdrawal Symptoms, and Craving

Within-day Temporal Patterns of Smoking, Withdrawal Symptoms, and Craving

Published in: Drug and Alcohol Dependence, v. 117, nos. 2-3, Sep. 2011, p. 118-125

by Siddharth Chandra, Deborah M. Scharf, Saul Shiffman

Read More

Access further information on this document at Elsevier Ireland Ltd

This study was published in a peer-reviewed scholarly journal. The full text of the study can be found at the link above.

Abstract

Smoking is associated with particular moods and activities, but it is not known whether there are individual differences in these associations and whether these differences are associated with success in smoking cessation. We assessed such associations using ecological momentary assessment: real-world, real-time data, collected by palm-top computer. Two hundred and fourteen smokers participating in a smoking cessation study provided data during ad lib smoking at baseline. Participants recorded moods and activities each time they smoked and, for comparison, at randomly selected non-smoking occasions. Situational associations with smoking were captured by examining the associations between smoking and antecedents considered relevant to lapse risk: negative affect (NA), arousal, socializing with others, the presence of others smoking, and consumption of coffee and alcohol. The associations varied across participants, confirming individual differences in situational smoking associations. Survival analyses revealed that only the NA pattern predicted first lapse. The effect was only seen in EMA assessments of NA smoking, and was not captured by questionnaire measures of negative affect smoking, which did not predict lapse risk. Moreover, the effect was not mediated by nicotine dependence.

Research conducted by

This report is part of the RAND Corporation external publication series. Many RAND studies are published in peer-reviewed scholarly journals, as chapters in commercial books, or as documents published by other organizations.

The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.