The Military and Democracy in Indonesia: Challenges, Politics, and Power

Challenges, Politics, and Power

by Angel Rabasa, John Haseman

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The Indonesian military, with its tradition of secular nationalism, is one of the few institutions that cut across the divides of Indonesian society. As it continues to play a critical part in determining Indonesia's future development, the military itself is undergoing profound change. The authors of this book explore the role of the military in politics and society since the fall of President Suharto in 1998. They examine key research issues that are central to the strategic interests of the United States in Asia: Will the Indonesian military be a constructive force supporting democratic processes or will it opt for authoritarian solutions? What are some realistic goals for further progress on military reform? And how can the United States engage the Indonesian military most effectively to help bring about positive change? To answer these questions, the authors present several strategic scenarios for Indonesia, each of which has important implications for U.S.-Indonesian relations, and propose goals for Indonesian military reform and elements of a U.S. engagement policy.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter One

    Introduction

  • Part I

    The TNI

    • Chapter Two

      Origins and Institutional Development of the Armed Forces

    • Chapter Three

      Doctrinal Change: From "Total People's Defense and Security" to the "New Paradigm"

    • Chapter Four

      Changes in the Intelligence Function

    • Chapter Five

      The Changing Political Role of the Military

    • Chapter Six

      Inside the TNI: Career Patterns, Factionalism, and Military Cohesion

    • Chapter Seven

      The Military's Funding and Economic Interests

  • Part II

    Security Challenges

    • Chapter Eight

      The Challenge of Terrorism and Religious Extremism

    • Chapter Nine

      Communal Conflict in Eastern and Central Indonesia

    • Chapter Ten

      Separatist Movements in Aceh and Papua

  • Part IIII

    Security Challenges

    • Chapter Eleven

      The Rocky Course of U.S.-Indonesian Military Relations

    • Chapter Twelve

      Strategic Scenarios for Indonesia and Their Implications

    • Chapter Thirteen

      Goals for Indonesian Military Reform and Elements of a U.S. Engagement Strategy

Book Review Excerpts

"Drawing on personal experience in the region and a series of interviews with senior TNI leaders, RAND analyst Angel Rabasa and former U.S. Defense Attaché Colonel John Haseman provide a concise primer on the TNI and what the United States might expect in the near future… The study is an excellent factual introduction to current security issues in Indonesia."

- Military Review, June 2004

The research described in this report was sponsored by the Smith Richardson Foundation. The research was conducted through the International Security and Defense Policy Center (ISDPC) of RAND's RAND National Security Research Division (NSRD).

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