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Military spending in Eastern Europe in the 1980s has declined or stagnated according to this paper, which examines this trend in the context of research on defense inputs and outputs. It discusses what we know, compares indicators and their implications, and assesses constraints on military modernization imposed by demographic, social, and economic trends in Eastern Europe. The paper concludes with a discussion of ways in which Western policies could influence East European decisions on military allocations.

This report is part of the RAND Corporation paper series. The paper was a product of the RAND Corporation from 1948 to 2003 that captured speeches, memorials, and derivative research, usually prepared on authors' own time and meant to be the scholarly or scientific contribution of individual authors to their professional fields. Papers were less formal than reports and did not require rigorous peer review.

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