Methods Used by Federal Agencies
Description of methods that selected federal agencies use to manage three major types of R&D: (1) fundamental research to gain knowledge about basic natural phenomena, (2) practice-oriented R&D to produce knowledge and products directly useful in practice, and (3) programmatic R&D to solve important national problems in a comparatively short period of time. Included in the descriptions of the methods are (1) the procedures used for program management, (2) the organization of R&D activities within the various federal agencies, and (3) the staffing plans used to support R&D management. Each of the management methods described represents a different approach to program development, the basic responsibility of R&D managers. This includes the generation of new basic program ideas, the elaboration of these ideas into finished products of proven worth, and the distribution of R&D products among user communities.