Paying for War

Funding U.S. Military Operations Since 2001

by Aaron L. Martin

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Abstract

The challenge of budgeting for military operations was not a new one that the U.S. faced in the early 2000s. Since World War II, the U.S. has conducted major multiyear military operations in Korea and Vietnam. Yet the methods used to budget for operations since 2001 were very different than during these previous operations. In prior operations, the wartime budgets were largely merged or subsumed within the annual defense budgets within two or three years. However, an alternate wartime budget, either in the form of supplemental appropriations or a separate title in the annual appropriations bill, has been used throughout recent operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. This dissertation documents the findings and recommendations from an analysis of the outcomes from using separate wartime budgets during prolonged operations. The outcomes explored within the dissertation range from the changes in budgetary influence that the executive and legislative branches have in certain situations to identifying budgetary challenges that will likely emerge as operations conclude.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter One

    Introduction

  • Chapter Two

    Predicting Outcomes of Wartime Supplemental Appropriations

  • Chapter Three

    Analysis of Wartime Supplemental Requests and Appropriations

  • Chapter Four

    How Supplemental Appropriations Impacted Base Personnel Policy

  • Chapter Five

    Wartime Budgets Influence Operation and Maintenance Spending

  • Chapter Six

    Wartime Acquisition Impacts Force Structures and Operating Costs

  • Chapter Seven

    Army MRAP Retention

  • Chapter Eight

    Buying Military Intervention in the Future

  • Appendix A

    Wartime Requests and Appropriations

  • Appendix B

    Interviews

  • Appendix C

    Comparing Current and Future TWVs to MRAPs

  • Appendix D

    Allocating MRAPs

  • Appendix E

    Modeling the Costs of MRAP Allocation

This document was submitted as a dissertation in August 2011 in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the doctoral degree in public policy analysis at the Pardee RAND Graduate School. The faculty committee that supervised and approved the dissertation consisted of Ellen Pint (Chair), Jim Quinlivan, and Cindy Williams.

This report is part of the RAND Corporation dissertation series. PRGS dissertations are produced by graduate fellows of the Pardee RAND Graduate School, the world's leading producer of Ph.D.'s in policy analysis. The dissertations are supervised, reviewed, and approved by a PRGS faculty committee overseeing each dissertation.

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