Summaries of Completed Research

  • Exploring Future Technology Landscapes

    05 Dec 2013

    In recent decades, the centre of gravity for defence innovation has shifted from defence to the civilian sector. The UK MOD has developed successful approaches to improve its engagement with external innovators but should review its wider engagement across the supply chain, recognising that the civil sector now dominates most of the UK technology landscape.

  • British and Dutch Teens See More Alcohol Ads than Adults Do

    03 Dec 2013

    Adolescents in the Netherlands and the UK are more exposed to television alcohol advertising than adults, according to RAND Europe research, an effect not seen in Germany. The study looked at exposure to alcohol advertising and content of televised adverts in these three countries. An exploration of online alcohol marketing in the UK found high potential for adolescent exposure to alcohol marketing through social media websites.

  • Extending Copenhagen's Traffic Model May Help Reduce Congestion

    20 Nov 2013

    Copenhagen sees a lot of traffic, and congestion charging policies are currently high on the political agenda. The Danish Road Directorate asked RAND Europe, TetraPlan and Significance to extend the city's existing traffic model to predict time-of-day choice for car drivers. Doing so will allow planners to assess the effectiveness of different charging policies aimed at reducing congestion levels at particular times of day.

  • Examining Europe's Policy Options to Foster Development of the 'Internet of Things'

    06 Nov 2013

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has the potential to fundamentally change the future, as billions of objects around us will be connected to make our lives easier. The European Commission hopes to devise a policy stance capable of fostering a dynamic and trustworthy IoT. RAND Europe research is informing this policy, based on the current state of play and probable developments, from a technological, economic and policy point of view.

  • Radicalisation in the Digital Era

    05 Nov 2013

    RAND Europe’s ground-breaking report on the use of the Internet in 15 cases of terrorism and extremism provides primary data on how the Internet is used by individuals in the process of their radicalisation. The study yields recommendations for framing policy responses to the use of the Internet in radicalisation. Our results suggest that while the Internet facilitates the radicalisation of individuals, it is not the sole driver of the process.

  • International Comparative Performance of Mental Health Research

    05 Nov 2013

    Scientific understanding of mental health and its neurobiological and psychosocial underpinnings has greatly increased in the last three decades. Yet, little is known about the landscape of this knowledge and how and where it is evolving. Through the Alliance for Mental Health Research, RAND Europe conducted a bibliometric assessment of mental health research (MHR) outputs from 1980 to 2011. The study demonstrated that bibliometrics can help highlight the potential drivers of variation in performance of MHR systems and provides an analytical basis for benchmarking MHR trends in the future.

  • Estimating the Cost of Untreated Opioid Dependence in the UK

    05 Nov 2013

    Understanding the costs of opioid dependence is important to inform drug policies and decision making. A targeted review of the harms of opioid dependence enabled an assessment of existing estimates of their costs and a proposed framework for developing new, more comprehensive estimates.

  • Mental Health Retrosight Study Sheds Light on What Makes Biomedical Research More Likely to Benefit Patients

    28 Oct 2013

    The Mental Health Retrosight study of 20 years of research in the field of schizophrenia shows how research projects that successfully translated into patient benefit share certain characteristics, such as multidisciplinary researchers or teams, and clinically-oriented rather than basic research topics. These attributes could be selected for, promoted or nurtured to increase the impact of future research on improving patients’ lives.

  • Review of Experiences in Three Countries Informs England's Patient Choice Scheme

    17 Oct 2013

    To help inform the expansion of the Patient Choice Scheme pilot in England and as part of an independent evaluation led by PIRU, researchers at RAND Europe reviewed experiences of Finland, Norway, and Sweden. The research highlighted the need to carefully monitor the impact of enhanced choice in primary care so as to ensure that related policies truly enhance access to and improve the quality of care and not inadvertently benefits those who are more able to exercise choice.

  • Quality of Patient Care Drives Physician Satisfaction; Doctors Have Concerns About Electronic Health Records

    09 Oct 2013

    Being able to provide high-quality health care is a key factor driving job satisfaction among physicians in the United States, and obstacles to quality patient care are a source of stress for them. RAND Europe's Emma Pitchforth contributed to a study for the American Medical Association that looked at the implications of these factors for patient care, health systems, and health policy.

  • Examining Data and Security Breaches and Cyber-Security Strategies

    20 Sep 2013

    Current EU-level efforts to address network and information security may not be as robust as they could be. A review some of the provisions of the Commission's 2013 proposals for a Network and Information Security Directive highlights specific concerns, including the relationship of incident notification achieving the outcomes of the directive, potential for overlapping regulation and definitions of covered entities. It would be helpful to clarify what kind of incidents the Directive is aimed to address.

  • The Global Threat of Antimicrobial Resistance

    18 Sep 2013

    To head off the growing threat of drugs no longer working in the war against microbes, Dame Sally C Davies, Chief Medical Officer for England, together with Dr Jonathan Grant and Professor Mike Catchpole, have written The Drugs Don't Work. The book brings together in one easy read the startling facts of the here-and-now problem we face about resistance to our current range of antimicrobial drugs, with expert analysis of the science behind and policy implications of the battle against infectious diseases.

  • Examining the Public Acceptability of Government Intervention to Change Health-Related Behaviours

    04 Sep 2013

    Some policy interventions are better able to change individual behaviour than others. RAND Europe, as part of the University of Cambridge Behaviour and Health Research Unit, explored whether contextual factors and the nature of evidence influence a policy’s acceptability and success and focused on four key behaviours relevant for current policy challenges: smoking, diet, physical activity and alcohol consumption. The researchers found that public acceptability of government interventions to change behaviour is greatest for the least intrusive interventions, which are often the least effective, and for interventions targeting the behaviour of others, rather than the respondent him or herself.

  • Regulating Sales of Age-Restricted Products

    15 Aug 2013

    Local authorities in the UK can benefit from a new tool developed by RAND Europe to measure the impacts and outcomes of local regulations designed to restrict sales of products harmful to children. The tool, developed for the Better Regulation Delivery Office, will help those who regulate alcohol, tobacco, knives, fireworks, sun beds and gambling to measure the progress of their work. Researchers also delivered a workshop in each topic to specialists from local authorities across the country.

  • Analysing the Illicit Drug Market in the EU

    12 Aug 2013

    To provide "further analysis on the EU illicit drugs market and responses to it", RAND, Trimbos Institute and the Institute for Criminal Policy Research conducted a follow-up to the 2009 EC-supported report on global illicit drug markets. RAND and its partners provide analysis on a range of issues including the flexibility of illicit drug suppliers to move in and out of other illegal markets and the costs of producing and trafficking cannabis in the EU

  • Modelling Transport Demand in Sydney, Australia

    24 Jul 2013

    Transport for New South Wales (TfNSW) operates the Sydney Strategic Travel Model (STM) to inform long term transport planning, policy development, and infrastructure assessment in Greater Sydney, Australia. RAND Europe has implemented new travel frequency, mode, and destination model components of the STM, and has recently further improved the commute mode-destination model. Previous work extended the model scope to include toll road choice for car drivers, and park-and-ride and kiss-and-ride access to train, and analysed and enhanced the pivoting component of the STM that helps to predict future travel patterns.

  • Consumers' Responsiveness to Alcohol Multi-buy Sales Promotions

    22 Jul 2013

    Multi-buy promotions have a large impact on which alcohol products consumers purchase, according to stated-preference research by RAND Europe for Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs. The overall impact on all alcohol purchasing is somewhat smaller, though still substantial: Moderate drinkers are more likely to be swayed by these promotions, but because hazardous and harmful drinkers purchase much higher volumes of alcohol, the absolute impact on these groups is higher.

  • How Europe's Changing Population Will Impact Income Inequality

    19 Jul 2013

    Groups of the EU population most at risk of poverty that are likely to grow in size include the elderly and migrants, as well as elderly women and single heads of households. Successfully managing the transition to an increasingly aging population while continuing to maintain high welfare standards will depend upon continuing reform of pensions systems, healthcare systems and labor markets.

  • Providing Support for Children with Special Education Needs

    17 Jul 2013

    The sharing of best practices on the provision of support for children with special education needs (SEN) is lacking at the European level; this is compounded by the absence of pan-European data and comparable country data on the prevalence of SEN. Nevertheless, a political consensus has emerged on the importance of effective diagnosis and early intervention, followed by inclusive education, or placement of children with SEN in mainstream education, rather than offering special schooling.

  • Potential Savings by Integrating Land Force Personnel across EU Member States

    11 Jul 2013

    Matt Bassford, director of the RAND Europe Defence & Security team, was at the Brussels press launch of a report from the Bertelsmann Stiftung: The European Added Value of EU Spending. Bassford and RAND Europe colleagues contributed a major case study to the report, on the potential savings from integrating land force personnel across EU Member States

  • Hospital Leadership Training Programme Contributes to Improved Care Quality

    02 Jul 2013

    Leadership is widely seen to be central to improving the quality of healthcare. RAND Europe evaluated a leadership training programme at a large hospital trust to determine whether it might help to promote quality improvement and performance within the healthcare environment. Our findings suggest that there is potential for combined leadership training and quality improvement programmes to contribute to strengthening a culture of care quality in healthcare organisations.

  • How Can Research Be Evaluated?

    01 Jul 2013

    There are many different evaluation frameworks to choose from, and many tools for gathering appropriate data to use within frameworks, but no single approach works in all contexts and for all purposes. RAND Europe has compiled a comprehensive list of evaluation tools and techniques, including when each might be most useful; the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches; and the context in which each of 14 different frameworks has been used before.

  • Current Developments in Parenting Support in European Member States

    17 Jun 2013

    As part of the European Platform for Investing in Children (EPIC), the European Commission's Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion asked RAND Europe to review parenting support initiatives in Europe. The scope, organisation, delivery and funding of parenting support services varies considerably across and within Member States. Nevertheless, a common set of characteristic features of parenting support can be identified in the European context.

  • Availability of Novel and Niche Tobacco and Nicotine Products Varies Across EU

    07 Jun 2013

    There are increasingly diverse tobacco and nicotine products, including waterpipes and new products such as electronic cigarettes or dissolvable smokeless tobacco. Many of these are marketed as 'less harmful' than cigarettes, or suggested to help quit smoking, but their health impacts remain inadequately understood. Unfortunately, the evidence on the availability and use of these products in Europe is patchy, with high variability in both the quality of data and the regulatory environment.

  • Examining the EU's Military Capabilities for Cyber Defence

    24 May 2013

    The European Defence Agency (EDA) asked RAND Europe and FRS to compile an inventory of cyber defence capabilities at the European level (in the context of EU-led missions) and of European Member States. The research gathered empirical evidence on a range of defence capabilities; analysed and charted the interdependencies between military capabilities and other organisations; and reviewed arrangements for cyber defence at the EU level.