In recent decades, the centre of gravity for defence innovation has shifted from defence to the civilian sector. The UK MOD has developed successful approaches to improve its engagement with external innovators but should review its wider engagement across the supply chain, recognising that the civil sector now dominates most of the UK technology landscape.
In an attempt to better coordinate strategic decision-making in response to the global trends of the future, and their impact on the EU, the European Strategy and Policy Analysis System (ESPAS) was established in 2010. RAND Europe’s assessment of global societal trends aims to untangle these complex relationships, as one of three major areas being examined in the second phase of the ESPAS project: namely society, the economy, and governance and power.
Adolescents in the Netherlands and the UK are more exposed to television alcohol advertising than adults, according to RAND Europe research, an effect not seen in Germany. The study looked at exposure to alcohol advertising and content of televised adverts in these three countries. An exploration of online alcohol marketing in the UK found high potential for adolescent exposure to alcohol marketing through social media websites.
RAND Europe’s ground-breaking new report on the use of the Internet in 15 cases of terrorism and extremism provides primary data on how the Internet is used by individuals in the process of their radicalisation. The study yields recommendations for framing policy responses to the use of the Internet in radicalisation. Our results suggest that while the Internet facilitates the radicalisation of individuals, it is not the sole driver of the process.
The Mental Health Retrosight study of 20 years of research in the field of schizophrenia shows how research projects that successfully translated into patient benefit share certain characteristics, such as multidisciplinary researchers or teams, and clinically-oriented rather than basic research topics. These attributes could be selected for, promoted or nurtured to increase the impact of future research on improving patients’ lives.
To help inform the expansion of the Patient Choice Scheme pilot in England and as part of an independent evaluation led by PIRU, researchers at RAND Europe reviewed experiences of Finland, Norway, and Sweden. The research highlighted the need to carefully monitor the impact of enhanced choice in primary care so as to ensure that related policies truly enhance access to and improve the quality of care and not inadvertently benefits those who are more able to exercise choice.
Being able to provide high-quality health care is a key factor driving job satisfaction among physicians in the United States, and obstacles to quality patient care are a source of stress for them. RAND Europe's Emma Pitchforth contributed to a study for the American Medical Association that looked at the implications of these factors for patient care, health systems, and health policy.
Current EU-level efforts to address network and information security may not be as robust as they could be. A review some of the provisions of the Commission's 2013 proposals for a Network and Information Security Directive highlights specific concerns, including the relationship of incident notification achieving the outcomes of the directive, potential for overlapping regulation and definitions of covered entities. It would be helpful to clarify what kind of incidents the Directive is aimed to address.
To head off the growing threat of drugs no longer working in the war against microbes, Dame Sally C Davies, Chief Medical Officer for England, together with Dr Jonathan Grant and Professor Mike Catchpole, have written The Drugs Don't Work
. The book brings together in one easy read the startling facts of the here-and-now problem we face about resistance to our current range of antimicrobial drugs, with expert analysis of the science behind and policy implications of the battle against infectious diseases.
Some policy interventions are better able to change individual behaviour than others. RAND Europe, as part of the University of Cambridge Behaviour and Health Research Unit, explored whether contextual factors and the nature of evidence influence a policy’s acceptability and success and focused on four key behaviours relevant for current policy challenges: smoking, diet, physical activity and alcohol consumption. The researchers found that public acceptability of government interventions to change behaviour is greatest for the least intrusive interventions, which are often the least effective, and for interventions targeting the behaviour of others, rather than the respondent him or herself.
Local authorities in the UK can benefit from a new tool developed by RAND Europe to measure the impacts and outcomes of local regulations designed to restrict sales of products harmful to children. The tool, developed for the Better Regulation Delivery Office, will help those who regulate alcohol, tobacco, knives, fireworks, sun beds and gambling to measure the progress of their work. Researchers also delivered a workshop in each topic to specialists from local authorities across the country.
To provide "further analysis on the EU illicit drugs market and responses to it", RAND, Trimbos Institute and the Institute for Criminal Policy Research conducted a follow-up to the 2009 EC-supported report on global illicit drug markets. RAND and its partners provide analysis on a range of issues including the flexibility of illicit drug suppliers to move in and out of other illegal markets and the costs of producing and trafficking cannabis in the EU
The Internet of Things (IoT) has the potential to fundamentally change the future, as billions of objects around us will be connected to make our lives easier. The European Commission hopes to devise a policy stance capable of fostering a dynamic and trustworthy IoT. RAND Europe research is informing this policy, based on the current state of play and probable developments, from a technological, economic and policy point of view.
Transport for New South Wales (TfNSW) operates the Sydney Strategic Travel Model (STM) to inform long term transport planning, policy development, and infrastructure assessment in Greater Sydney, Australia. RAND Europe has implemented new travel frequency, mode, and destination model components of the STM, and has recently further improved the commute mode-destination model. Previous work extended the model scope to include toll road choice for car drivers, and park-and-ride and kiss-and-ride access to train, and analysed and enhanced the pivoting component of the STM that helps to predict future travel patterns.
Multi-buy promotions have a large impact on which alcohol products consumers purchase, according to stated-preference research by RAND Europe for Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs. The overall impact on all alcohol purchasing is somewhat smaller, though still substantial: Moderate drinkers are more likely to be swayed by these promotions, but because hazardous and harmful drinkers purchase much higher volumes of alcohol, the absolute impact on these groups is higher.
Groups of the EU population most at risk of poverty that are likely to grow in size include the elderly and migrants, as well as elderly women and single heads of households. Successfully managing the transition to an increasingly aging population while continuing to maintain high welfare standards will depend upon continuing reform of pensions systems, healthcare systems and labor markets.
The sharing of best practices on the provision of support for children with special education needs (SEN) is lacking at the European level; this is compounded by the absence of pan-European data and comparable country data on the prevalence of SEN. Nevertheless, a political consensus has emerged on the importance of effective diagnosis and early intervention, followed by inclusive education, or placement of children with SEN in mainstream education, rather than offering special schooling.
Leadership is widely seen to be central to improving the quality of healthcare. RAND Europe evaluated a leadership training programme at a large hospital trust to determine whether it might help to promote quality improvement and performance within the healthcare environment. Our findings suggest that there is potential for combined leadership training and quality improvement programmes to contribute to strengthening a culture of care quality in healthcare organisations.
There are many different evaluation frameworks to choose from, and many tools for gathering appropriate data to use within frameworks, but no single approach works in all contexts and for all purposes. RAND Europe has compiled a comprehensive list of evaluation tools and techniques, including when each might be most useful; the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches; and the context in which each of 14 different frameworks has been used before.
Many complex issues surround the use of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy as HIV prevention, and these were explored in the Mapping Pathways project, in which RAND Europe was a partner. The report from the second phase of the project brings together scientific evidence and community perspectives on four strategies for ARV-based HIV prevention in the U.S., India, and South Africa, and emphasises how local context shapes perception of evidence.
As part of the European Platform for Investing in Children (EPIC), the European Commission's Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion asked RAND Europe to review parenting support initiatives in Europe. The scope, organisation, delivery and funding of parenting support services varies considerably across and within Member States. Nevertheless, a common set of characteristic features of parenting support can be identified in the European context.
Policy and decision makers require timely, reliable and high quality evidence to improve and accelerate progress for women's and children's health globally. In work commissioned by the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and the Implementation Research Platform (hosted by the World Health Organization), RAND Europe examined the potential for different mechanisms to enable evidence-informed policymaking in the Asia and the Pacific region.
There are increasingly diverse tobacco and nicotine products, including waterpipes and new products such as electronic cigarettes or dissolvable smokeless tobacco. Many of these are marketed as 'less harmful' than cigarettes, or suggested to help quit smoking, but their health impacts remain inadequately understood. Unfortunately, the evidence on the availability and use of these products in Europe is patchy, with high variability in both the quality of data and the regulatory environment.
The European Defence Agency (EDA) asked RAND Europe and FRS to compile an inventory of cyber defence capabilities at the European level (in the context of EU-led missions) and of European Member States. The research gathered empirical evidence on a range of defence capabilities; analysed and charted the interdependencies between military capabilities and other organisations; and reviewed arrangements for cyber defence at the EU level.
To inform a Danish government review of service provision, RAND conducted a benchmarking study of European fire and rescue services. The research analysed developments in European fire and rescue since 2000; highlighted limitations in international fire statistics; and provided data-rich Scottish, Dutch and German case studies to provide valuable analysis of procurement, training and civil contingencies regimes.