Summaries of Completed Research

  • Local Context is Key in Successfully Using ARVs to Prevent HIV/AIDS

    31 Mar 2014

    The Mapping Pathways project, in which RAND Europe is a partner, explores the complex issues surrounding the use of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy as HIV prevention. The second phase of the project produced a report that brings together scientific evidence and community perspectives on four strategies for ARV-based HIV prevention and emphasises how local context shapes perception of evidence. Three subsequent workshops examine the local context in greater detail.

  • Mapping Smart Cities in the EU

    25 Mar 2014

    The European Parliament asked RAND Europe to provide background information and advice to their members on the role of Smart Cities initiatives and to explain how existing mechanisms perform. The researchers established a working definition of a Smart City and mapped the cities fitting this definition across the Member States. An analysis of the Smart Cities initiatives found that Smart Cities objectives should be more explicit, well defined and clearly aligned to city development, innovation plans and Europe 2020 to be successful.

  • Evaluation of the Structural Genomics Consortium

    10 Mar 2014

    The Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC) is a not-for-profit, public-private partnership formed to support drug-discovery through pre-competitive structural biology research. The SGC has commissioned RAND Europe and Canada's Institute on Governance to provide an evaluation of its unique, open-access model, to understand the nature and diversity of its benefits for partnering organisations as well as for the wider research community.

  • Regulating Quality and Safety of Health and Social Care

    13 Feb 2014

    Ensuring adherence to standards and quality improvement in health and social care is a major concern in many health systems. Care standards have been developed in many countries, but they are implemented and applied in different ways. This report, for the English Department of Health, reviews the regulatory mechanisms and policy instruments used to encourage and ensure continuous quality improvement across six countries: Australia, England, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands and the USA.

  • Understanding Intolerance in Western Europe

    27 Jan 2014

    Intolerance based on ethnic, national, racial and religious grounds is an area of high public concern, but there is relatively little empirical research that provides an overview of how apparently rising hate crime and growing support for some populist parties relate to wider public attitudes. The Open Society Foundation asked RAND Europe to assess existing evidence and map reported intolerance over time and across western European countries. The study examines which countries are experiencing the most significant changes in levels of intolerance and against which groups; it also considers implications for policy.

  • Psychological Wellbeing and Work in the UK

    20 Jan 2014

    Mental ill-health is associated with high economic and social costs and represents a significant policy challenge in the UK: Mental health is now one of the leading reasons for people claiming sickness absence benefits. Public sector stakeholders commissioned RAND Europe to identify approaches to improve the effectiveness and alignment of health and employment services to achieve better employment outcomes for individuals with mental health problems.

  • Modelling Long-Distance Travel in Great Britain

    09 Jan 2014

    Trips longer than 50 mi account for less than one-fortieth of all trips but nearly one-third of all distance traveled within Great Britain. Because they account for a substantial proportion of total distance traveled, particularly on motorways and rail, these trips are important for transport policy and have a substantial impact on congestion. RAND Europe developed a model to ensure proper treatment of the specific properties of long-distance travel; such treatment is essential for appraising the impact of transport policy aimed at this market, such as high-speed rail, highway construction and management policies, and policies directed toward domestic air travel.

  • How to Increase Value and Reduce Waste When Research Priorities Are Set

    08 Jan 2014

    Jonathan Grant has co-authored a paper on how to increase value and reduce waste when research priorities are set, launched today in The Lancet. The message is that policymakers, research funders and researchers must make more use of prior research results, systematic reviews and patients’ own views, when deciding what research to perform. It is also important to consider how to get the maximum impact from each research project, which RAND Europe researchers have explored in their Retrosight projects.

  • How ImpactFinder Can Aid Universities with the Research Excellence Framework

    06 Jan 2014

    Impact now plays a role in the allocation of research funding to UK universities through the Research Excellence Framework (REF), presenting universities with a new challenge: how best to capture research results and construct submissions to the REF. ImpactFinder is an analysis and advice package to help senior research leaders determine how best to identify research with the greatest impact and present it to the REF panels.

  • Multinational Overview of Cannabis Production Regimes

    20 Dec 2013

    The research arm of the Dutch Ministry of Security and Justice, WODC, has commissioned RAND Europe to conduct an international stocktaking of cannabis production initiatives. This report contains a multinational overview of cannabis production regimes, with a special focus on identifying and describing official statements and/or legal decisions made about production regimes for non-medical and non-scientific purposes (i.e., recreational use for adults). This research report describes the ways in which these policies developed in selected countries, and the legal, legislative and voters' decisions that shaped them.

  • EU Told: Focus on Health, not Wealth, for Long-Term Resilience

    18 Dec 2013

    In the face of global trends in demography, migration, education and empowerment, and alongside sluggish economic growth in Europe, the European Union needs to invest in its citizens. These are the recommendations put forth in Europe's Societal Challenges, a report by RAND Europe for ESPAS, the European Strategy and Policy Analysis System. The focus for incoming policymakers should not be wealth, as measured by GDP, but the socio-economic health of EU nations.

  • Exposure of Youth to Online Alcohol Marketing

    13 Dec 2013

    In 2011, online marketing became the largest marketing channel in the UK, overtaking television for the first time. Using commercially available data on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, the three most used social media websites among young people in the UK, we analysed by age and gender these sites' reach and impressions. Facebook was the social media site with the highest reach, with an average monthly reach of 89% of males and 91% of females aged 15–24. Moreover, all five of the alcohol brands studied maintained a Facebook page, Twitter page and YouTube channel, with varying levels of user engagement.

  • Exploring Future Technology Landscapes

    05 Dec 2013

    In recent decades, the centre of gravity for defence innovation has shifted from defence to the civilian sector. The UK MOD has developed successful approaches to improve its engagement with external innovators but should review its wider engagement across the supply chain, recognising that the civil sector now dominates most of the UK technology landscape.

  • British and Dutch Teens See More Alcohol Ads than Adults Do

    03 Dec 2013

    Adolescents in the Netherlands and the UK are more exposed to television alcohol advertising than adults, according to RAND Europe research, an effect not seen in Germany. The study looked at exposure to alcohol advertising and content of televised adverts in these three countries. An exploration of online alcohol marketing in the UK found high potential for adolescent exposure to alcohol marketing through social media websites.

  • Extending Copenhagen's Traffic Model May Help Reduce Congestion

    20 Nov 2013

    Copenhagen sees a lot of traffic, and congestion charging policies are currently high on the political agenda. The Danish Road Directorate asked RAND Europe, TetraPlan and Significance to extend the city's existing traffic model to predict time-of-day choice for car drivers. Doing so will allow planners to assess the effectiveness of different charging policies aimed at reducing congestion levels at particular times of day.

  • Radicalisation in the Digital Era

    05 Nov 2013

    RAND Europe’s ground-breaking new report on the use of the Internet in 15 cases of terrorism and extremism provides primary data on how the Internet is used by individuals in the process of their radicalisation. The study yields recommendations for framing policy responses to the use of the Internet in radicalisation. Our results suggest that while the Internet facilitates the radicalisation of individuals, it is not the sole driver of the process.

  • Estimating the Cost of Untreated Opioid Dependence in the UK

    05 Nov 2013

    Understanding the costs of opioid dependence is important to inform drug policies and decision making. A targeted review of the harms of opioid dependence enabled an assessment of existing estimates of their costs and a proposed framework for developing new, more comprehensive estimates.

  • Mental Health Retrosight Study Sheds Light on What Makes Biomedical Research More Likely to Benefit Patients

    28 Oct 2013

    The Mental Health Retrosight study of 20 years of research in the field of schizophrenia shows how research projects that successfully translated into patient benefit share certain characteristics, such as multidisciplinary researchers or teams, and clinically-oriented rather than basic research topics. These attributes could be selected for, promoted or nurtured to increase the impact of future research on improving patients’ lives.

  • Review of Experiences in Three Countries Informs England's Patient Choice Scheme

    17 Oct 2013

    To help inform the expansion of the Patient Choice Scheme pilot in England and as part of an independent evaluation led by PIRU, researchers at RAND Europe reviewed experiences of Finland, Norway, and Sweden. The research highlighted the need to carefully monitor the impact of enhanced choice in primary care so as to ensure that related policies truly enhance access to and improve the quality of care and not inadvertently benefits those who are more able to exercise choice.

  • Quality of Patient Care Drives Physician Satisfaction; Doctors Have Concerns About Electronic Health Records

    09 Oct 2013

    Being able to provide high-quality health care is a key factor driving job satisfaction among physicians in the United States, and obstacles to quality patient care are a source of stress for them. RAND Europe's Emma Pitchforth contributed to a study for the American Medical Association that looked at the implications of these factors for patient care, health systems, and health policy.

  • Examining Data and Security Breaches and Cyber-Security Strategies

    20 Sep 2013

    Current EU-level efforts to address network and information security may not be as robust as they could be. A review some of the provisions of the Commission's 2013 proposals for a Network and Information Security Directive highlights specific concerns, including the relationship of incident notification achieving the outcomes of the directive, potential for overlapping regulation and definitions of covered entities. It would be helpful to clarify what kind of incidents the Directive is aimed to address.

  • The Global Threat of Antimicrobial Resistance

    18 Sep 2013

    To head off the growing threat of drugs no longer working in the war against microbes, Dame Sally C Davies, Chief Medical Officer for England, together with Dr Jonathan Grant and Professor Mike Catchpole, have written The Drugs Don't Work. The book brings together in one easy read the startling facts of the here-and-now problem we face about resistance to our current range of antimicrobial drugs, with expert analysis of the science behind and policy implications of the battle against infectious diseases.

  • Examining the Public Acceptability of Government Intervention to Change Health-Related Behaviours

    04 Sep 2013

    Some policy interventions are better able to change individual behaviour than others. RAND Europe, as part of the University of Cambridge Behaviour and Health Research Unit, explored whether contextual factors and the nature of evidence influence a policy’s acceptability and success and focused on four key behaviours relevant for current policy challenges: smoking, diet, physical activity and alcohol consumption. The researchers found that public acceptability of government interventions to change behaviour is greatest for the least intrusive interventions, which are often the least effective, and for interventions targeting the behaviour of others, rather than the respondent him or herself.

  • Regulating Sales of Age-Restricted Products

    15 Aug 2013

    Local authorities in the UK can benefit from a new tool developed by RAND Europe to measure the impacts and outcomes of local regulations designed to restrict sales of products harmful to children. The tool, developed for the Better Regulation Delivery Office, will help those who regulate alcohol, tobacco, knives, fireworks, sun beds and gambling to measure the progress of their work. Researchers also delivered a workshop in each topic to specialists from local authorities across the country.

  • Analysing the Illicit Drug Market in the EU

    12 Aug 2013

    To provide "further analysis on the EU illicit drugs market and responses to it", RAND, Trimbos Institute and the Institute for Criminal Policy Research conducted a follow-up to the 2009 EC-supported report on global illicit drug markets. RAND and its partners provide analysis on a range of issues including the flexibility of illicit drug suppliers to move in and out of other illegal markets and the costs of producing and trafficking cannabis in the EU