Africa, the world’s second-largest, second-most-populous continent, is also the most environmentally diverse, politically divided, and economically underdeveloped. RAND research has not treated Africa as a monolith but has focused on regional and national trends — such as global health, maritime violence and piracy, and the spread of radical Islam  — while situating Africa’s many political conflicts and need for economic growth within a global context.

  • Trainee health workers preparing to don protective suits at a World Health Organization training session in Freetown September 30, 2014, photo by Umaru Fofana/Reuters


    What the Ebola Crisis Taught Us About Emergency Preparedness

    Jun 4, 2015

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak was the most severe of its kind. At the height of the crisis, 800 to 1,000 new cases were reported per week in Africa across the three most heavily affected countries. As of last week, there were only 12 confirmed cases. What must be done to prevent and mitigate future crises of this nature?

  • A Malian soldier speaks with Tuareg men in the village of Tashek, outside Timbuktu, July 27, 2013, photo by Joe Penney/Reuters


    Achieving Peace in Northern Mali

    May 1, 2015

    What will it take to build durable peace in northern Mali? Successes and failures from past peace agreements can inform future efforts. There are also lessons to be gleaned from the stability of Niger, Mali's neighbor.

Explore Africa

  • A man holds a cross that reads "death to the president" as he marches with other protesters who are against Burundi President Pierre Nkurunziza and his bid for a third term, June 3, 2015


    Flirting with Genocide in Burundi: Paying Attention Could Save Lives

    Burundi has been afflicted by political violence since April. President Pierre Nkurunziza, who helped bring peace to the country in the last decade, is risking everything for the sake of staying in power. He is dragging the country backwards after 10 years of progress.

    Nov 18, 2015

  • A French soldier from Operation Barkhane rides in an armoured vehicle in Timbuktu, November 5, 2014


    The French Way of War

    There is a French way of warfare that reflects the French military's lack of resources and its modest sense of what it can achieve. They specialize in carefully apportioned and usually small but lethal operations, often behind the scenes.

    Nov 17, 2015

  • Egypt's Prime Minister Sherif Ismail (right) listens to rescue workers as he looks at the remains of a Russian airliner after it crashed in central Sinai, north Egypt, October 31, 2015


    Passing Judgment on Russian Plane Crash Before the Facts Are In

    A bright flash and catastrophic event suggest an explosion, but do not necessarily exclude the possibility of a mechanical failure. This would not, in fact, be the first time evidence pointed to a terrorist attack when none existed.

    Nov 12, 2015

  • Report

    The Use of Unmanned Aerial Systems for Agriculture in Africa: Can It Fly?

    Examines the feasibility of adopting agricultural unmanned aerial systems in Africa.

    Nov 11, 2015

  • Employees count ballots after the first phase of parliamentary elections in Dokki, Giza governorate, Egypt, October 19, 2015


    Partisans Without Parties

    It is tempting to describe Egypt's parliamentary elections as history repeating itself. Yet today's Egypt is not Mubarak's Egypt. Rather, it is a state transitioning from single-party rule to a new system whose pecking order is still being hashed out.

    Oct 29, 2015

  • U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry shakes hands with U.S. Marines during his visit to the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad March 24, 2013


    Benghazi: Questions Unasked and Opportunities Missed

    Instead of asking whether a video precipitated the attack or whether Ambassador Stevens should have been in Benghazi on that fateful night, the right question to ask is under what conditions the United States should have a diplomatic presence in high-risk areas.

    Oct 22, 2015

  • Cameroonian soldiers in Mabass, northern Cameroon, where Boko Haram militants kidnapped 80 people on January 18, 2015


    A Good Move in Cameroon

    President Obama's decision to deploy 300 soldiers to Cameroon to help combat the Nigerian Islamist group Boko Haram is welcome news. The U.S. is stepping in at the right time, in the right way, by providing intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance support that will greatly enhance Cameroon's and others' chances.

    Oct 18, 2015

  • Nigerian midwife


    Evaluating the Impact of the Nigerian Midwives Service Scheme

    To improve maternal and child health, the Nigerian government introduced the Midwives Service Scheme (MSS), a program to increase access to skilled care in rural areas. Experts evaluated the impact of MSS and found that initial improvements were not sustained.

    Sep 15, 2015

  • A Nigerian woman and infant

    Research Brief

    Evaluating Nigeria's Efforts to Improve Maternal and Child Health

    Nigeria is the world's second-largest contributor to under-five and maternal mortality. To address low rates of use of maternal and child health services, the government deployed midwives to work in rural communities. How effective has this program been?

    Sep 15, 2015

  • A Malian gendarme climbs stairs at the Byblos hotel, site of a siege over the weekend in which 17 people died in Sevare, Mali, August 11, 2015


    How to Defeat a New Boko Haram in Mali

    While there is a need for stepped up military and police efforts against the self-proclaimed Macina Liberation Front, Mali's policymakers and their international partners need to focus on countering revivalist Islam, ideally by promoting Mali's other Islamic traditions, while finding ways to calm the inter-communal competition.

    Sep 8, 2015

  • Tunisian soldiers and police patrol near Algeria's border in Kasserine, Tunisia July 4, 2015 after an Islamist militant attack on a beach hotel that killed 38 foreigners


    Algeria: The Bastion of North Africa

    Algeria could be a key regional partner for the United States and France in security and counterterrorism efforts against Al Qaeda and the Islamic State. It has a clear interest in quelling the threat posed by regional jihadists and it has local knowledge that could be helpful to U.S. counterterrorism efforts.

    Aug 11, 2015

  • Mural at the Uganda Virus Research Institute, Entebbe


    The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative's Capacity Building Activities in East Africa

    The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) helps to bridge the gap between scientific and technological potential and the needs of low income populations in low and middle income countries. RAND Europe is evaluating its capacity-building activities - including training, advocacy and broader community engagement activities - in Uganda, Kenya and Rwanda.

    Jul 30, 2015

  • Report

    The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative's capacity building activities in East Africa: Evaluating progress and impacts in Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda

    This study was commissioned by the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) to understand how the organisation contributes to research capacity building activities in Uganda, Kenya, and Rwanda.

    Jul 30, 2015

  • Protestors block trucks at the gate of a private-contractor company hired to shut off the water to residential customers with unpaid bills in Detroit, Michigan


    What Durban Can Teach Detroit: Getting Customers to Pay Their Water Bills

    South Africa is proving that governments in poor cities can provide water and collect payment without turning off the water spigot. Detroit and Baltimore might consider exploring models like this that have been successfully tested in even more challenging settings.

    Jul 29, 2015

  • A Belgian Air Force F-16 over Ghardabiya Air Base, Libya, April 29, 2011


    Airpower in the Libyan Civil War

    In 2011, a coalition of nations waged a war against Muammar Qaddafi's regime that reversed the tide of Libya's civil war. The intervention's central element was a relatively small air campaign. What lessons did each nation glean from the experience?

    Jul 8, 2015

  • Journal Article

    PEPFAR Funding Associated with an Increase in Employment Among Males in Ten Sub-Saharan African Countries

    The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) economic impact should be taken into account when making aid allocation decisions.

    Jul 7, 2015

  • Juba, South Sudan, February 2014: Internally displaced persons in South Sudan find a safe shelter at the UN House IDP Camp


    Family Planning Must Be Part of the Humanitarian Response in Africa's Conflict Zones

    Worldwide, nearly 800 women die every day due to mostly preventable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. More than half of these deaths occur in fragile states torn by armed conflict and generalized violence.

    Jul 1, 2015

  • Flowers at the beachside of the Imperial Marhaba resort, which was attacked by a gunman in Sousse, Tunisia, June 28, 2015


    After Attacks in France, Tunisia, and Kuwait, West Must Do More to Fight Surge of Terrorist Attacks

    The bloody terrorist attacks that left more than 50 people dead in France, Tunisia, and Kuwait are just the latest warnings that ISIS is turning its deadly campaign into a global enterprise. Stopping it will require an equally broad-based campaign.

    Jun 29, 2015

  • A Tunisian holds up a flag during celebrations marking the fourth anniversary of Tunisia's revolution, Tunis, January 14, 2015


    Tunisia in the Crosshairs

    The open-ended nature of the Islamic State group's threat against Tunisair suggests that it intends to target Tunisia for the long haul. The United States should counter the threats with steadfast and sustained cooperation and assistance.

    Jun 22, 2015

  • Smoke rises after what activists said were clashes with Islamic State fighters in Soran Azaz, Aleppo countryside June 1, 2015


    Islamic State's Global Expansion

    The radical Islamist group, also known as ISIS or ISIL, is now expanding in roughly a dozen countries across Africa, the Middle East, and Asia by exploiting local grievances, doling out money, and leveraging its battlefield successes.

    Jun 4, 2015