The UK government invests approximately £1.6 billion in medical research each year, and the British public donated £1.7 billion to medical research charities in 2012–13. This funding delivers health gains for patients and also benefits the UK economy at a 40 percent return annually.
RAND Europe and HERG were asked by UK medical research funders to investigate returns to public/charitable investment in cancer research. This report details the five case studies conducted as part of this work and observations emerging across them.
In many studies with a survival outcome, it is often not feasible to fully observe the primary event of interest. This often leads to heavy censoring and thus, difficulty in efficiently estimating survival or comparing survival rates between two groups.
At present, most patients who eventually undergo radical or partial nephrectomy do not undergo RMB, whereas most patients who eventually undergo ablation or systemic therapy do. The optimal use of RMB in the evaluation of kidney tumors has yet to be determined.
There is widespread misuse of imaging tests in men with low-risk prostate cancer, particularly for CT. These findings highlight the need for examination of factors that drive decision making with respect to imaging in this setting.
Most medical research focuses on fighting individual disease. But delayed aging could boost life expectancy by more than two years and yield more than $7 trillion over 50 years. Greater investment in research to delay aging could be a very efficient way to prevent disease, improve public health, and extend healthy life.
Breakthrough Breast Cancer, a UK-based research charity, commissioned RAND Europe to conduct a study to determine the future outlook for breast cancer. This work informed the development of Breakthrough’s future strategic direction, helping them to achieve the best possible outcomes for people affected by breast cancer.
Both practice environment and patient clinical and demographic characteristics are associated with cancer clinical trial enrollment; simultaneous intervention may be required when trying to increase enrollment rates.
A large number of chronic conditions, including cancer, are associated uniquely with decrements in health utility. The cumulative effects of comorbid conditions have substantial impact on daily functioning and well-being of Medicare beneficiaries.
The potential for treatment costs can discourage screening in developing countries. A field experiment in Nigeria offered cervical cancer screening to women at randomly chosen prices, as well as a chance for treatment subsidies. Findings indicate that preventive efforts in developing countries should subsidize both testing and treatment costs.
In a Northern Italian population, the absolute risk of lung cancer among never smokers is higher in women than men but among smokers is lower in women than men. Lexpit regression is a novel approach to additive-multiplicative risk modeling that can contribute to clearer interpretation of population-based case–control studies.