Air quality and water quality are often adversely affected by heavy industry and the production and use of fossil fuels, but environmental interest groups, government officials, and the private sector frequently disagree on policies to curb greenhouse gas emissions. While most research has focused on the cost-effectiveness of proposed policies, RAND has also devised a new methodology to evaluate policies while balancing economic development with environmental quality concerns.
Producing natural gas from shale generates air pollutant emissions. RAND researchers provided a first-order estimate of air emissions, and the monetary value of the associated damages, from the extraction of shale gas in Pennsylvania.
The unusually cold conditions in Arctic winter 2010/11 that led to large stratospheric ozone loss are investigated.
The use of biomass for energy production has increasingly been encouraged in the United States, in part motivated by the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to fossil fuels.
The authors perform a technical and economic assessment and estimate the economic costs and net GHG reductions from U.S renewable electricity mandates. GHG emissions reductions from such policies could be as much as 670 million metric tons per year. Depending on technological development, economic costs are $13-$45 billion per year. Lower costs depend on favorable technological progress.
Assesses how park characteristics and demographic factors are associated with park use.
There is little evidence of an association between short- or long-term exposure to particulate matter air pollution and venous thromboembolism; and no evidence that hormone therapy is modifing such a link.
The authors investigated the association between physical and social neighborhood environments and fifth-grade students' physical activity and obesity.
Investigates the ways in which terrorism is linked to education and poverty using data newly culled from Hamas and PIJ documentary sources
This paper examines the factors and incentives that are most likely to influence households' choice for cleaner vehicles in the metropolitan area of Hamilton, Canada.
It has been well recognized that urban transportation and land-use are strongly interrelated and affect air quality.
The development of models to assess air pollution exposures within cities for assignment to subjects in health studies has been identified as a priority area for future research.
Investigates the variability in ecological risk perceptions by surveying members of four stakeholder groups commonly involved in environmental policy debates.
This study identifies robust, adaptive pollution-control strategies to help ensure economic growth and environmental quality for the 21st century.
In this paper, we use the optimal estimation method developedby Rodgers (1976, 1990) to retrieve NO2 vertical profiles from slant column observations made with aportable ultraviolet (UV)-visible zenith-sky spectrometer operated on the ground during the Middle AtmosphereNitrogen TRend Assessment (MANTRA) balloon campaign carried out at Vanscoy, Saskatchewan, Canada (52°N,107°W), from 18 to 25 August 1998.
The Middle Atmosphere Nitrogen TRend Assessment (MANTRA) series of high-altitude balloon flights is being undertaken to investigate changes in the concentrations of northern hemisphere mid-latitude stratospheric ozone, and of nitrogen and chlorine compounds that play a role in ozone chemistry.
Zenith-sky spectra in the near ultraviolet and visible wavelength regions were recorded for a period of seven days, prior to and following the launch of the MANTRA balloon on 24 August 1998.
Integrated urban models are designed to simulate land-use and transportation interactions and to allow predicts of traffic volume and vehicle emissions at the link level of the urban transport network.
In this paper, we use the optimal estimation technique with a formal characterization of the errors to retrieve NO2 concentration profiles from slant column observations made at Eureka during March and April 1999.
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), also called passive smoking, has been shown to have adverse effects on the health of children.