The purpose of these updated guidelines is to provide interested persons and organizations in western Pennsylvania with updated information on Legionella and how to minimize its occurrence and impact in people and in the environment.
Development of natural gas resources has progressed rapidly in Pennsylvania. These activities require many heavy truck trips for equipment and materials, which can damage state and local roads not designed for high volumes of heavy truck traffic.
Natural gas production is growing and many states and communities are reaping the economic benefits. One of the costs, however, will be damage to roads. One hydraulic fracturing operation requires about 600 to 1,100 one-way, heavy truck trips to bring equipment, materials, and sometimes water to and from a well site.
While the expansion of Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act will require additional spending by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, these costs will be more than offset by additional revenue or reductions in other spending in the 2014-2020 timeframe.
The medical home has gained national attention as a model to reorganize primary care to improve health outcomes. Pennsylvania has undertaken one of the largest state-based, multipayer medical home pilot projects.
If Pennsylvania opts into Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act, more residents would have health coverage and the state would enjoy a positive economic effect. However, benefits would have a long-term cost, with uneven regional results.
Further study, including primary data collection in regions where extraction is occurring, will be important to track the magnitude of emissions and to ensure that Pennsylvania's permit requirements are adequate to protect human health and the environment, writes Aimee Curtright.
Producing natural gas from shale generates air pollutant emissions. RAND researchers provided a first-order estimate of air emissions, and the monetary value of the associated damages, from the extraction of shale gas in Pennsylvania.
One in five indigent murder defendants in Philadelphia are randomly assigned representation by public defenders while the remainder receive court-appointed private attorneys. Compared to appointed counsel, public defenders in Philadelphia reduce their clients' murder conviction rate by 19%, lower the probability of a life sentence by 62%, and reduce overall expected time served in prison by 24%.
An analysis of the outcomes for murder defendants who were represented either by public defenders or by appointed private counsel in Philadelphia raises important questions about the adequacy and fairness of the criminal justice system.
There are large quantities of coal mine water in Pennsylvania—much more than could be used in the coming decade for hydraulic fracturing. Researchers and operators will need to further explore quantity and quality needs to confirm whether coal mine drainage sources represent a viable, large-scale alternative to fresh water.