Police-community Relations

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Communities rely on police departments to "protect and serve" and the police, in turn, rely on community support and cooperation, but the relationship is not always harmonious. RAND researchers have examined the relationships between law enforcement agencies and their communities in several countries.

Explore Police-community Relations

  • flickr_3404985890_b203801f3c_o

    Project

    Assessing the Value of Mounted Police Units in the UK

    Mounted police have been part of British policing for the better part of two centuries but little was known about their work from an academic or practitioner standpoint. RAND Europe helped to investigate both quantitative and qualitative indicators relating to the value of mounted police in various deployment scenarios, in an effort to understand how members of the public perceive and respond to mounted police deployments.

    Nov 19, 2014

  • Mounted police outside Buckingham Palace

    Report

    Assessing the Value of Mounted Police Units in the UK

    Research in the UK shows demonstrable and measurable value of mounted police in various deployment scenarios, but the decision to maintain, expand or cut mounted capacity must be based on the priorities a police force sets within limited and contracting budgets.

    Nov 18, 2014

  • Activists, demanding justice for the shooting death of teen Michael Brown, raise their hands as they are blocked by police from entering the courthouse in St. Louis, Missouri

    Commentary

    In Ferguson's Wake, How a Data-Driven Approach Can Improve Police-Community Relations

    Community leaders and police departments have a responsibility to their citizens to address questions about their policing practices, such as: What are the most significant areas of concern? How severe are the problems? What are the most effective solutions?

    Sep 16, 2014

  • Demonstrators gesture and chant as they continue to react to the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri August 17, 2014

    Commentary

    Data Key to Tackling Racial Profiling in Ferguson

    Authorities in Ferguson would be wise to consider following Cincinnati's example in dealing with mistrust between police and citizens after the police shooting of a young black man. The city embarked on a thorough examination of racial profiling by its police force and took steps to deal with the perception that bias was influencing the way police officers performed their duties.

    Aug 21, 2014

  • Israel police

    Report

    Greater Transparency and Accountability Key to Improving Effectiveness of Israel Police

    An approach to policing known as “procedural justice,” emphasizing transparency and accountability, would help Israel's national police meet current and emerging challenges. The force needs to address issues of civil-police relations, benchmarking, performance measurement, and deterrence.

    May 2, 2014

  • a police car pulling over a driver

    Commentary

    Predictive Policing: An Effective Tool, but Not a Crystal Ball

    Predictive policing is not an end-all solution, but rather a tool that must be used in concert with other policing resources as part of a broader anti-crime effort. Used properly, predictive policing can predict the risk of future events, but not the events themselves.

    Nov 15, 2013

  • police, car, cruiser, law, order, patrol, streets, crime, speeders, trap, waiting, lights, lightbar, city, watch, observe, neighborhood

    Research Brief

    Forecasting Crime for Law Enforcement

    Predictive policing is the use of analytical techniques to prevent crime or solve past crimes. An assessment of some of the most promising technical tools and tactical approaches offers recommendations for police and developers.

    Oct 14, 2013

  • police car and yellow tape police line do not cross

    Report

    The Role of Crime Forecasting in Law Enforcement Operations

    Predictive policing methods fall into four general categories: methods for predicting crimes, predicting offenders, predicting perpetrators' identities, and predicting victims of crime. These methods are not equivalent to a crystal ball, but they can enhance proactive policing and improve intervention strategies.

    Sep 25, 2013

  • News Release

    Greater Transparency, Accountability Key to Improving Effectiveness of Israel Police

    An approach to policing known as “procedural justice,” emphasizing transparency and accountability, would help Israel's national police meet current and emerging challenges. The force needs to address issues of civil-police relations, benchmarking, performance measurement, and deterrence.

    Jul 2, 2013

  • A police officer on duty

    Report

    How Can Police Departments Use Lessons Learned by the Military to Develop a Diverse Workforce?

    Lessons from the military can be used to inform police personnel management who are concerned about recruiting and promoting a racially/ethnically diverse workforce: qualified minority candidates are available, career paths impact diversity, and departments should leverage organizational commitment to diversity.

    Dec 10, 2012

  • A police officer on duty

    Project

    Center on Quality Policing Promotes Efficiency, Effectiveness in Local Police Agencies

    The RAND Center on Quality Policing provides research and analysis on contemporary police practice and policy. The Center's work helps law enforcement agencies across the U.S. make better operational decisions and consistently perform at their best.

    Sep 5, 2012

  • Report

    Identifying Barriers to Diversity in Law Enforcement Agencies

    Law enforcement agencies can use barrier analysis, a method of assessment aimed at identifying potential obstacles to obtaining resources or participating in a program, to better understand and address the challenge of creating diversity among their personnel.

    Jul 26, 2012

  • female-police-officer-car-123920408

    Report

    Selected International Best Practices in Police Performance Measurement

    Police officers take on a variety of roles, and performance measures should capture this complexity. This report describes key considerations in designing police performance measures and includes a detailed review of international best practices.

    May 7, 2012

  • Report

    Insights from New Recruits Help Law Enforcement Departments Refine Hiring Practices

    The results of a nationwide survey show how understanding modern recruits can help police and sheriff's departments refine their recruitment practices and develop a workforce well suited to community-oriented policing.

    Oct 6, 2010

  • Report

    Lessons on Police Recruitment and Retention for the New Millennium

    Lessons on recruitment and retention can help police departments create a workforce that represents community demographics, is committed to providing its employees long-term police careers, and effectively implements community policing.

    Dec 31, 2009

  • Event

    Policy Forum: L.A. Public Safety After Bratton

    Los Angeles Police Chief Bill Bratton and RAND Safety and Justice Director Greg Ridgeway discussed the future of the Los Angeles Police Department after Bratton's departure, and the implications on public safety in Los Angeles.

    Oct 28, 2009

  • Dallas skyline

    Report

    Measuring the Performance of the Dallas Police Department: 2008-2009 Results

    Describes the state of policing in Dallas, Texas, based on the results of four surveys carried out in 2008-2009.

    Oct 15, 2009

  • cincinnati_cover-mg914

    Report

    Cincinnati Police Department Traffic Stops: Analyzing Racial Disparities

    RAND has developed a fair, yet rigorous approach to analyzing traffic stop data for racial bias. Based on five years of data from the Cincinnati Police Department, the approach addresses bias in the decision to stop, flags officers with disparate stop patterns, and assesses bias in search and citation rates.

    Sep 25, 2009

  • Report

    Doubly Robust Internal Benchmarking and False Discovery Rates for Detecting Racial Bias in Police Stops

    Presents a statistical method to flag police officers who may potentially exhibit racial bias when making pedestrian stops.

    Aug 19, 2009

  • cincinnati_cover-mg853

    Report

    Police-Community Relations in Cincinnati: Year Four Evaluation Report

    In 2002, the Cincinnati Police Department and the ACLU joined together to review police-community relations. This report finds that CPD is not the same as the department that policed Cincinnati in 2001. With crime reduced and no evidence of racial bias at traffic stops, there is still room for improvement with community relations.

    Jan 16, 2009