School Food and Beverage Availability and Children's Diet, Purchasing, and Obesity: Evidence From a Natural Experiment
We examined whether the number of competitive food and beverage items available for purchase in school, overall and by type (unhealthy, healthy, neutral), was associated with in-school food purchases, dietary behaviors, and body mass index outcomes.
A Natural Experiment to Test the Effect of Sanction Certainty and Celerity on Substance-Impaired Driving: North Dakota's 24/7 Sobriety Program
Over half of participants ordered to abstain from substance use complete 24/7 Sobriety without a detected substance use event. At the county level, the program is associated with a 9% reduction in substance-impaired driving arrests.
May 7, 2020
Neighborhood Environments and Physical Activity: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescents in a Natural Experiment
Adolescence is a time when the decline in physical activity and increase in obesity is dramatic, highlighting the need to identify opportunities to address obesogenic behaviors for this age group.
Apr 18, 2018
The Science of Gun Policy: A Critical Synthesis of Research Evidence on the Effects of Gun Policies in the United States
This report synthesizes the available scientific evidence on the effects of various firearm policies on firearm deaths, violent crime, the gun industry, participation in hunting and sport shooting, and other outcomes.
Mar 2, 2018
Association of Exposure to Communities with Higher Ratios of Obesity with Increased Body Mass Index and Risk of Overweight and Obesity Among Parents and Children
Military families assigned to bases in counties with high obesity rates are more likely to be overweight than those in counties with low obesity rates, suggesting that social contagion may play a role in obesity.
Jan 25, 2018
Students in states that regulate “competitive” foods and beverages—those offered or sold outside the school lunch program--were less likely to be overweight or obese than students in states with no such policies.
Parental Deployment, Adolescent Academic and Social-Behavioral Maladjustment, and Parental Psychological Well-Being in Military Families
Long deployments can increase the risk for negative adolescent and parental outcomes, relative to short or no deployment; military fathers and adolescent boys may be more strongly affected than military mothers and adolescent girls.
The Role of School Environments in Explaining Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Body Mass Index Among U.S. Adolescents
School characteristics in the fifth and eighth grades showed little additional influence on the racial and ethnic disparities in body mass index observed at school entry in a longitudinal study of elementary and middle school students.
Jun 24, 2016
Neighborhood and Home Food Environment and Children's Diet and Obesity: Evidence from Military Personnel's Installation Assignment
Focusing only on the availability of particular food outlets in a neighborhood may ignore other important factors, including how families decide what food to buy and where to buy it, availability of healthy foods at home, and parenting practices.
Apr 29, 2016
Can a Criminal Justice Alcohol Abstention Programme with Swift, Certain, and Modest Sanctions (24/7 Sobriety) Reduce Population Mortality? A Retrospective Observational Study
In this study we examine whether the 24/7 Sobriety programme in South Dakota, USA—the largest such programme to date—is associated with reductions in mortality.
Feb 18, 2016
Decomposing Racial Disparities in Prison and Drug Treatment Commitments for Criminal Offenders in California
We assess whether black-white disparities in commitments to prison or diversions to treatment for drug offenders in California can be explained by differences in the characteristics of criminal cases and whether case characteristics are weighed differently by race.
Mothers' work hours are likely to affect their time allocation towards activities related to children's diet, activity and well-being.
Disparities in prison and diversion to drug treatment among drug-involved offenders affect hundreds of thousands of citizens and might reinforce imbalances in criminal justice and health outcomes.
May 13, 2013
Parent Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety and Children's Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Obesity: Evidence from a National Longitudinal Study
We examined the relationship between parent-perceived neighborhood safety and children's physical activity, sedentary behavior, body mass, and obesity status on a cohort of US kindergartners from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study.
May 1, 2013
South Dakota's 24/7 Sobriety Project, in which individuals with alcohol-involved offenses submit to breathalyzer tests twice per day or wear an alcohol monitoring bracelet at all times, reduced repeat DUI arrests at the county level by 12 percent.
Dec 12, 2012
Efficacy of Frequent Monitoring with Swift, Certain, and Modest Sanctions for Violations: Insights from South Dakota 24/7 Sobriety Project
In community supervision settings, frequent alcohol testing with swift, certain, and modest sanctions for violations can reduce problem drinking and improve public health outcomes.
Dec 6, 2012
The availabiltiy of junk food does not significantly increase BMI or obesity among a group of fifth-graders even though they are likely to buy junk food.
Apr 1, 2012
Examines the health care needs of released California prisoners, communities most affected by reentry, safety net capacity, and provider experiences with ex-prisoners, given California's Public Safety Realignment Plan and federal health care reform.
Dec 7, 2011
Understanding the Public Health Implications of Prisoner Reentry in California: State-of-the-State Report
Examines the health care needs of newly released California prisoners, the communities most affected by reentry, the capacity of their safety nets, and the experiences of released prisoners, service providers, and families of prisoners.
Nov 16, 2011
Discusses the potential usefulness and limitations of using utilization and cost metrics to evaluate the performance of U.S. Department of Defense military treatment facilities.
Sep 21, 2011
Summarizes key RAND studies on the causes of obesity, its economic and health consequences, and potential strategies for prevention, including work on health care costs, junk food, food deserts, school meals, and proximity of parks.
Aug 3, 2011
To transition rapidly to wartime service, Air Force Medical Service critical-care providers need suitable peacetime training opportunities, and this work must be properly attributed to AFMS so that it receives proper credit in budget distributions.
Jan 12, 2011
Economics offers tools and topical expertise that complement other disciplines associated with the addiction sciences. Its value goes far beyond the ability to monetize nonmonetary outcomes or to calculate a cost-benefit ratio.
California parolees' health care, mental health care, and drug- and alcohol-treatment needs, as well as where parolees go when they return to counties, place significant demands on counties' safety-net resources and on their ability meet those needs.
Jun 17, 2009
A variety of approaches to assessing the health care needs and geographic distribution of California parolees can help policymakers understand local communities' capacity to meet the needs of this population.
May 29, 2009
The economic cost of methamphetamine use reached more than an estimated $23 billion in 2005, mostly from the intangible burden that addiction places on dependent users and their premature mortality and from crime and criminal justice costs.
Apr 8, 2009
Examines participation patterns in the School Breakfast Program and National School Lunch Program.
Apr 7, 2009
Examines how maternal labor supply decisions influence children's participation in school meal programs.
Apr 7, 2009
Estimates the causal effect of competitive food availability on children's body mass index and other food- and school-related outcomes using an instrumental variables approach on a national sample of children.
Apr 1, 2009
The first national estimate of the economic cost of methamphetamine considers burdens of addiction, early death, drug treatment, lost productivity, crime and criminal justice, health care, production and environmental hazards, and child endangerment.
Jan 27, 2009
The purpose of this article is to examine variation in resource utilization across and within patient stays in the context of Medicare's per diem payment system for hospice.
In mid-1995, a government effort to reduce the supply of methamphetamine precursors successfully disrupted the methamphetamine market and interrupted a trajectory of increasing usage.
This research brief summarizes a RAND assessment of disparity ratios for women-owned small businesses to determine whether those businesses receive federal contracts in proportion to their representation in given industries.
Jun 5, 2007
Computations of disparity ratios measuring the underrepresentation of women-owned small businesses in federal contracting, showing that there is significant variation depending on the methodology used and on data limitations.
Apr 17, 2007
This report reviews issues related to profit status and provider costs and discusses the implications of findings in the literature for work on the relationship between the two, particularly in the post–acute care setting.
Mar 12, 2007
Provides background about market research and a summary of "how-to" guidance for U.S. Air Force commodity teams tasked with conducting market research in order to improve Air Force procurement by emulating commercial best practices.
Dec 12, 2006
This research brief summarizes a "how-to" guide for U.S. Air Force commodity teams tasked with conducting market research in order to improve Air Force procurement by emulating commercial best practices.
Dec 6, 2006
Uses visit data from a large national chain of hospice providers to reevaulate Medicare's per diem payment system for hospice care.
Jun 21, 2006
RAND Project Air Force developed a portfolio of metrics to help the Air Force Program Executive Officer for Combat and Mission Support effectively manage and oversee Air Force service acquisition activities.
Nov 25, 2005
Enhancing Public Health Preparedness: Exercises, Exemplary Practices, and Lessons Learned: Assessing the Adequacy of Extant Exercises for Addressing Local and State Readiness for Public Health Emergencies
Develops and applies criteria for assessing the design of emergency response exercises used at the local, state, regional, national, or international level.
May 24, 2005
To assist the Air Force in the process of changing the way it purchases services, this report reviews related commercial sector practices and suggests metrics to track progress and refine services procurement efforts over time.
Mar 1, 2005
Presents an analysis of a 90-day study to find ways to make the purchasing, contracting, and leasing activities of the Los Angeles World Airports, the Port of Los Angeles, and the Department of Water and Power more transparent and efficient
Jan 14, 2005