Cornell Critical Thinking Test (Level Z) (CCTT)

General Information on the Measure
Purpose of the measure

The Cornell Critical Thinking Test (CCTT) Level Z measures critical thinking abilities.

Main constructs measured

Cognitive competencies

Applicable grade levels

Grades 11+

Publication year for the most recent version

2005

Year originally developed

1971

Related measures
Measure Administration
Respondent Student
Method of administration Paper/Pencil
Number of items

52

Item format Selected response
Administration time

Approximately 50 minutes

Available languages

English

Fee for use Fee charged by developer
Credentials required for administration

None

Scoring
Overall score reporting

A total score is reported.

Subscore reporting

Level Z includes seven skills:

  • Induction
  • Deduction
  • Credibility
  • Identification of Assumptions
  • Semantics
  • Definition
  • Prediction in Planning Experiments
Scoring procedures

CCTT is self-scored using the assessment manual from the developer.

Interpretive information

Percentile rank scores are available.

Evidence of Technical Quality
Populations for which technical quality evidence has been collected

No information available in the references reviewed.

Reliability evidence

No information available in the references reviewed.

Validity evidence
Evidence based on content
No information available in the references reviewed. All technical quality evidence is reported in the Administration Manual, which is not publicly available.
Evidence based on response processes
No information available in the references reviewed. All technical quality evidence is reported in the Administration Manual, which is not publicly available.
Evidence based on internal structure
All technical quality evidence is reported in the Administration Manual, which is not publicly available. However, independently conducted factor analyses (Michael, Devaney & Michael, 1980) found evidence for a factor structure that did not align with the hypothesized structure of the CCTT. In that analysis, only one factor showed a correspondence with the structure articulated by the assessment developers. French et al. (2012) reported that most of the items (94%) of CCTT showed differential item functioning by gender, which suggests that mean differences between boys and girls do not support inferences about gender differences in critical thinking skills.
Evidence based on relations with other variables.
All technical quality evidence is reported in the Administration Manual, which is not publicly available. Lindis and Michael (1981) reported that scores on the CCTT had moderate correlations (0.51-0.62) with scores on standardized assessments of language and quantitative reasoning.
Locating the Measure
Obtaining a copy of the measure criticalthinking.com
References

French, B. F., Hand, B., Therrien, W. J., Valdivia Vazquez, J. A. "Detection of sex differential item functioning in the Cornell Critical Thinking Test," European Journal of Psychological Assessment, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2012, pp. 201–207.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000127

Landis, R. E., & Michael, W. B. "The factorial validity of three measures of critical thinking within the context of Guilford's Structure-of-Intellect Model for a sample of ninth grade students," Educational and Psychological Measurement, Vol. 41, No. 4, 1981, pp. 1147–1166.

Michael, J. J., Devaney, R. L., and Michael, W.B. "The factorial validity of the Cornell Critical Thinking Test for a junior high school sample," Educational and Psychological Measurement, Vol. 40, 1980, pp. 437–450.

Notes

Measure summary updated October 3, 2018.