Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (Elementary) (SDLRS-E)

General Information on the Measure
Purpose of the measure

The Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) measures the attitudes and skills that are associated with an individual's readiness to manage his or her own learning.

Main constructs measured

Cognitive competencies

Applicable grade levels


Publication year for the most recent version


Year originally developed


Related measures
Measure Administration


Method of administration

Paper/Pencil, Digital

Number of items


Item format

Five-point Likert-type items

Administration time

20-30 minutes

Available languages

E form: English and Farsi

Fee for use Fee charged by developer
Credentials required for administration


Overall score reporting

An overall self-directed learning score is reported.

Subscore reporting

No subscores are reported.

Scoring procedures

The measure is self-scored (paper/pencil version) or scored automatically (online version) or sent to author on a spreadsheet for scoring (paper/pencil version).

Interpretive information

Scores are classified into five categories for interpretation:

  • 58-188 (Low readiness)
  • 189-203 (Below average)
  • 204-218 (Average)
  • 219-232 (Above average)
  • 233-290 (High)
Evidence of Technical Quality
Populations for which technical quality evidence has been collected

Evidence was collected from 718 elementary students from across the U. S.

Reliability evidence

The measure has an internal consistency (Spearman-Brown) reliability estimate of 0.91. Finestone (1984) and Wiley (1981) reported test-retest reliability coefficients of 0.82 and 0.79 for the SDLRS-A, on which the SDLRS-E is based.

Validity evidence
Evidence based on content
Items were developed based on surveys of experts in the field of self-direction in learning. All characteristics that were rated as desirable, necessary, or essential were used as the basis of item construction.
Evidence based on response processes
Tryouts indicated no significant differences in scores if items were read to students.
Evidence based on internal structure
Preliminary factor analysis on the original 58-item version found evidence supporting eight factors.
Evidence based on relations with other variables
SLDRS scores correlate with several other measures of academic competence and readiness for learning (Posner, 1990). Additional evidence includes correlations with cross-cultural adaptability (r = .69, p < .001, Chuprina and Durr, 2006), conscientiousness (r = .61; p < .001, Oliviera and Simões, 2006), emotional intelligence (r = .59, p < .01, Muller, 2007), strategic thinking (r = .58, p < .001, Zsiga, 2007), resilience (r = .61; p < .001, Robinson, 2003), creativity and flexibility (r = .52, p < .01, Cox, 2002; Torrance & Mourad, 1978a, 1978b), life satisfaction (r = .45-.66, Diaz, 1988; See also Brockett, Curry, East, Edmondson et al.), and collaborative learning style (r = .56, p < .016, Fitzgerald, 2003).
Locating the Measure
Obtaining a copy of the measure

Guglielmino, L. M. "Learning preference assessment," Organization Design and Development, 1991.

Eisenman, J. G. , "Self-directed learning: A correlational study of fifth grade students, their parents, and teachers ," Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, 1988, Dissertation Abstracts International, 49, 1988, pp. 3587.

Finestone, P. "A construct validation of the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale with labour education participants," Doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto, 1984, Dissertation Abstracts International, 46, 5A, 1984.

Hillard, L., & Guglielmino, L. "Promoting reading improvement: A case study of exemplary elementary principals," ERS Spectrum, 25, 2, 2007, pp. 13–24.

Posner, F. G. "A study of self-directed learning, perceived competence and personal orientation among students in an open alternative high school," Doctoral dissertation, University of Denver, 1989, Dissertation Abstracts International, 51, 1990, pp. 813.

Wiley, K. "Effects of a self-directed learning project and preference for structure on self-directed learning readiness of baccalaureate nursing students ," Doctoral dissertation, Northern Illinois University, 1981, Dissertation Abstracts International, 43, 1A, 1981.


This measure is also referred to as the Learning Preference Assessment.

Measure summary updated October 3, 2018.