Personal Skills Map – Long Version (PSM)

General Information on the Measure
Purpose of the measure

The Personal Skills Map (PSM) is designed for individuals to self-assess key personal, interpersonal, life, and career skills essential to performance, healthy relationships, personal productivity, career success, and health. The PSM can be used in human resource development and education programs, consultation, training in business and industry, management development, and self-directed learning.

Main constructs measured

Interpersonal competencies; intrapersonal competencies

Applicable grade levels

Grades K–12+

Publication year for the most recent version


Year originally developed


Related measures
Measure Administration


Method of administration


Number of items


Item format

Three-point Likert-type scale

Administration time

No information is available in the references reviewed.

Available languages


Fee for use Fee charged by developer
Credentials required for administration


Overall score reporting

The overall score is reported.

Subscore reporting

There are 14 subscores:

  • Self-esteem
  • Interpersonal assertion
  • Interpersonal awareness
  • Empathy
  • Drive strength/Motivation
  • Decisionmaking
  • Time management
  • Sales orientation/Leadership
  • Commitment ethic
  • Stress management
  • Physical wellness
  • Interpersonal aggression
  • Interpersonal deference
  • Personal change orientation
Scoring procedures

The measure is automatically calculated online.

Interpretive information

Norm-referenced scores (percentile ranks) are available in the score reports.

Evidence of Technical Quality
Populations for which technical quality evidence has been collected

There are several samples, including a random adult sample (N=1400), used for establishing scale norms, a sample of youth ages 13-18 (N-1517) for establishing scale norms for the adolescent version of the PSM, and three research samples. These include a group of doctoral and masters level professionals working as psychologists, social psychotherapists, human development educators, marriage and family counselors, and college counselors (N=100); persons voluntarily seeking counseling and psychotherapy services from out-patient treatment facilities (N=122); and an undergraduate college student sample N=24) (Oakwood Solutions, 2019).

Reliability evidence

The test-retest reliability was estimated by having the same undergraduate college student complete the PSM twice (with a lag of one week). The test-retest reliability of the scale scores ranged from 0.64 on the Empathy scale to 0.94 on the Sales Orientation scale (Oakwood Solutions, 2019).

Validity evidence
Evidence based on content
The initial item pool developed based on literature review, and experts including professional educators, clinicians and researchers were asked to generate additional items. Then, expert clinical judgment was used to operationalize scales and revise items.
Evidence based on response processes
A readability study was conducted to determine the reading demands of the PSM. (Oakwood Solutions, 2019).
Evidence based on internal structure
Scale inter-correlations based on associations of scale raw scores were inspected, and there was evidence that the skill scales of the PSM are positively associated, consistent with theory (Oakwood Solutions, 2019).
Evidence based on relations with other variables
Evidence about the validity of PSM came from an examination of the relationships between PSM scores and scores on other scales including the Personal Orientation Inventory (Shostrom, 1962), the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (Edwards, 1959), the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (Cattell, 1956), and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (Hathaway & McKinley, 1943). The magnitude and direction of the correlations between two scales that measure the same or similar construct suggest that the instruments are measuring similar constructs (Oakwood Solutions, 2019).
Locating the Measure
Obtaining a copy of the measure

Cattell, R. B. "Validation and intensification of the sixteen personality factor questionnaire," Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1956, pp. 205–214.

Edwards, A. L. "Edwards Personal Preference Schedule manual," Psychological Corporation, 1959.

Hathaway, S. R., & McKinley, J. C. "The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory manual," Psychological Corporation, 1983.

Shostrom, E. L, "An inventory for the measurement of self-actualization," Manual for the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), Educational and Industrial Testing Service, 1962.


Measure summary updated July 8, 2019.