Academic and Social Self-Efficacy Scale (ASSESS)

General Information on the Measure
Purpose of the measure

Academic and Social Self-Efficacy Scale (ASSESS) measures academic and social self-efficacy of elementary school students. It can be used to predict academic and social status.

Main constructs measured

Intrapersonal competencies; Interpersonal competencies

Applicable grade levels

Elementary grades

Publication year for the most recent version


Year originally developed


Related measures
Measure Administration


Method of administration


Number of items


Item format

Five-point Likert-type scale

Administration time

No information is available in the references reviewed.

Available languages


Fee for use Free and publicly available
Credentials required for administration


Overall score reporting

No overall scores are reported.

Subscore reporting

There are three subscores:

  • Academic and social self-efficacy
  • Cognitive perceived competence
  • Social perceived competence
Scoring procedures

The measure is self-scored.

Interpretive information

No information is available in the references reviewed.

Evidence of Technical Quality
Populations for which technical quality evidence has been collected

Public school students in grades 3 through 5 (N=336).

Reliability evidence

Internal consistency (alpha) estimates ranged from 0.36 to 0.83 (Gresham et al, 1988).

Validity evidence
Evidence based on content
Items were adapted from two existing measures: the Walker Problem Behavior Identification Checklist (Walker, 1983) and the Social Skills Rating Scales (now SSIS, Gresham & Elliott, 2008).
Evidence based on response processes
No information is available in the references reviewed.
Evidence based on internal structure
Principal components analysis on the self-efficacy items indicated that two aspects of self-efficacy were distinguishable (academic and social self-efficacy) (Gresham et al, 1988).
Evidence based on relations with other variables
Multitrait-multimethod study (parent, teacher, and self-reports of the same constructs) shows significant method variance (Gresham et al, 1988)—that is, there is some evidence that scores are dependent on the type of reporter. In a series of step-wise regression models, student self-reports predicted academic achievement and socio-metric status, which reflects the extent to which students are liked by their peers (Gresham et al, 1988).
Locating the Measure
Obtaining a copy of the measure

Gresham, F. M., Evans, S., & Elliott, S. N. "Academic and Social Self-Efficacy Scale: Development and initial validation," Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1988, pp. 125–138.

Gresham, F., & Elliott, S. N. "Social skills improvement system (SSIS) rating scales," Pearson Assessments, 2008.

Walker, H. M. "Walker problem behavior identification checklist: Manual," Western Psychological Services, 1983.


Measure summary updated October 3, 2018.