Attitudes and Behaviors Survey (A&B)

General Information on the Measure
Purpose of the measure

The Attitudes and Behaviors survey provides youth-serving organizations with information about their students’ strengths and the competencies (developmental assets) they will need to be successful in school and beyond. Survey results can be used to develop and plan school or community-based supports for young people.

Main constructs measured

Intrapersonal competencies; Interpersonal competencies

Applicable grade levels Grades 6-12
Publication year for the most recent version


Year originally developed


Related measures
Measure Administration
Respondent Student
Method of administration Digital
Number of items


Item format Five-point Likert-type scale
Administration time 30 minutes
Available languages English
Fee for use Fee charged by developer
Credentials required for administration


Overall score reporting

Overall levels of developmental assets are reported in the aggregate.

Subscore reporting

There are 40 assets including a wide range of external assets and internal assets, 24 risk behaviors (including Drug Free Communities measures), ten high risk behavior patterns, five developmental deficits, and eight thriving indicators.

Scoring procedures

The measure is scored online.

Interpretive information

Score reports include breakdowns by grade and other demographic categories, as well as reflective questions meant to guide discussion and score use.

Evidence of Technical Quality
Populations for which technical quality evidence has been collected

Data was collected from youth in grades 6 through 12 in 213 U.S. cities and towns (N=99,462) (Leffert et al, 1998).

Reliability evidence

Internal consistency (alpha) estimates were calculated for all scales with three or more items. Internal consistency (Spearman-Brown) was estimated for all two-item scales. Estimates ranged from 0.40 to 0.82 (Leffert et al, 1998).

Validity evidence
Evidence based on content
Content of scales was developed based on literature review (Scales & Leffert, 1999).
Evidence based on response processes
No information available in the references reviewed.
Evidence based on internal structure
Exploratory factor analysis found support for identifying 16 distinct scales (Leffert et al, 1998). There were systematic gender-based differences in responses, suggesting differences in experiences during adolescence (Leffert et al, 1998).
Evidence based on relations with other variables
Youth who have higher numbers of assets, are consistently less likely to experience risk behaviors, including alcohol, tobacco and drug use, antisocial behavior, and school problems (Leffert et al, 1998).
Locating the Measure
Obtaining a copy of the measure

Leffert, N., Benson, P. L., Scales, P. C., Sharma, A. R., Drake, D. R., & Blyth, D. A. "Developmental assets: Measurement and prediction of risk behaviors among adolescents," Applied Developmental Science, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1998, pp. 209–230.

Benson, P. L., Leffert, N., Scales, P. C., & Blyth, D. A. "Beyond the “village” rhetoric: Creating healthy communities for children and adolescents," Applied Developmental Science, Vol. 2, 1998, pp. 138–159.

Scales, P. C., & Leffert, N. , "Developmental assets: A synthesis of the scientific research on adolescent development," Search Institute, 1999.


Measure summary updated October 3, 2018.