Friendship Quality Questionnaire (FQQ)

General Information on the Measure
Purpose of the measure

The Friendship Quality Questionnaire (FQQ) measures the quality of a child's best friendship.

Main constructs measured

Interpersonal competencies

Applicable grade levels

Grades 3 to 6

Publication year for the most recent version

1993

Year originally developed

1989

Related measures
Measure Administration
Respondent

Student

Method of administration

Paper/Pencil

Number of items

40 (plus one warm-up item)

Item format

Five-point Likert-type scale

Administration time

15-20 minutes

Available languages

English

Fee for use Access may be limited or unavailable
Credentials required for administration

None

Scoring
Overall score reporting

No overall scores are reported.

Subscore reporting

Six subscales are reported:

  • Validation and caring
  • Conflict resolution
  • Conflict and betrayal
  • Help and guidance
  • Companionship and recreation
  • Intimate exchange
Scoring procedures

The FQQ is self-scored.

Interpretive information

No information is available in the references reviewed.

Evidence of Technical Quality
Populations for which technical quality evidence has been collected

Evidence is based on 881 children in grades 3-5 in five public elementary schools in the Midwestern United States (Parker & Asher, 1993).

Reliability evidence

Internal consistency coefficients were estimated for each subscale (mean coefficient alpha=0.80, min=0.73, max=0.9) (Parker & Asher, 1993).

Validity evidence
Evidence based on content
Items were adapted from a previously published questionnaire (Bukowski, Hoza & Newcomb, 1987) where items had been piloted, refined, and validated using evidence based on internal structure (including item-total correlations and confirmatory factor analysis).
Evidence based on response processes
No information available in the references reviewed.
Evidence based on internal structure
Factor analysis was used to construct the six subscales. The Conflict Resolution subscale score was negatively correlated with scores on other subscales. Correlations among other subscales were positive. The absolute value of the correlations among subscale scores was between 0.16 and 0.75.
Evidence based on relations with other variables
Scores on positive friendship qualities scales (i.e., validation and caring, companionship and recreation, help and guidance, and intimate exchange) were associated with high satisfaction with friendship (as measured by a brief, two-item survey—administered separately from the FQQ), whereas scores on the conflict and betrayal were associated with low satisfaction with friendship. The magnitude of association ranged from 0.35 to 0.52. Scores on six scales of the FQQ accounted for 46% of the variance in satisfaction about friendship (Parker & Asher, 1993).
Locating the Measure
Obtaining a copy of the measure psycnet.apa.org
References

Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. "Friendship and friendship quality in middle childhood: Links with peer group acceptance and feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction," Developmental Psychology, Vol. 29, 1993, pp. 611–621.

Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. , "Friendship and friendship quality in middle childhood: Links with peer group acceptance and feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction," Developmental Psychology, Vol. 29, 1993, pp. 611–621.

Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. , "Peer relations and social adjustment: Are friendship and group acceptance distinct domains?" Properties, processes, and effects of friendship relations during childhood and adolescence, Vol. Symposium conducted at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, 1989.

Bukowski, W M., Hoza, B., & Newcomb, A. F. "Friendship, popularity, and the 'self' during adolescence," Unpublished manuscript, University of Maine, Department of Psychology, 1987.

Bukowski, W. M., Hoza, B., & Boivin, M. "Measuring friendship quality during pre-and early adolescence: The development and psychometric properties of the Friendship Qualities Scale," Journal of social and Personal Relationships, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1994, pp. 471–484.

Notes

Measure summary updated October 3, 2018.