Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Parent or Teacher version) (SDQ)
|General Information on the Measure|
|Purpose of the measure||
The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) screens for positive and negative psychological attributes.
|Main constructs measured||
Intrapersonal competencies; Interpersonal competencies
|Applicable grade levels||
Age 3 to 16
|Publication year for the most recent version||
|Year originally developed||
Teacher/Educator or Parent
|Method of administration||
|Number of items||
Three-point Likert-type scale
No information is available in the references reviewed.
Over 30 languages
|Fee for use||Free and publicly available|
|Credentials required for administration||
|Overall score reporting||
An overall difficulties score is available.
There are five subscores:
Scoring can be done by website or by hand, but the assessment developers do not recommend scoring by hand.
SDQ has a scoring website, SDQscore.org, or scoring can be done by hand.
|Evidence of Technical Quality|
|Populations for which technical quality evidence has been collected||
Evidence is based on a sample of over 10,000 British adolescents, ages 5 to 15, including parents, teachers, and self reports (Goodman, 2001).
Inter-rater reliabilities were calculated for parent-teacher, parent-student, and teacher-student versions of the forms. Spearman inter-rater correlations ranged from 0.23 to 0.48 (Goodman, 2001). Internal consistency estimates range from 0.88 to 0.57. Test-retest reliabilities (with a four-to-six-month interval) ranged from 0.57 to 0.82.
|Locating the Measure|
|Obtaining a copy of the measure||sdqinfo.org|
Goodman, R. , "The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: a research note," Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 38, 5, 1997, pp. 581–586.
Goodman, R. , "Psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire," Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 11, 2001, pp. 1337–1345.
Measure summary updated October 3, 2018.