Pupil Attitudes to Self and School (PASS)

General Information on the Measure
Purpose of the measure

Pupil Attitudes to Self and School® (PASS) assesses how students feel about school and themselves as a learner, including connectedness, self-efficacy, and motivation. The PASS can be used as a universal screener to help teachers identify at-risk students and to develop or deploy suitable interventions.

Main constructs measured

Intrapersonal competencies

Applicable grade levels


Publication year for the most recent version


Year originally developed


Related measures
Measure Administration


Method of administration

Paper/Pencil, Digital

Number of items

27 or 50

Item format

Likert-type scale

Administration time

15–20 minutes

Available languages

English (online)
26 languages (print)

Fee for use Fee charged by developer
Credentials required for administration


Overall score reporting

No overall scores are reported.

Subscore reporting

There are nine subscores:


  • Feelings about school
  • Perceived learning capability
  • Self-regard as a learner


  • Preparedness for learning
  • Attitudes to teachers
  • General work ethic
  • Confidence in learning


  • Attitudes to attendance
  • Response to curriculum needs
Scoring procedures

Scoring manual and online scoring is provided by the assessment developer.

Interpretive information

Score reports contain individual student, school-level and district-level scores as well as analyses by grade, gender, race/ethnicity, special education status, English Learner status, socioeconomic status, and custom groups. Scores are reported as standardized percentile scores and then categorized as high, moderate, low-moderate, and low satisfaction.

Evidence of Technical Quality
Populations for which technical quality evidence has been collected

Evidence based on a sample that is representative of the general United Kingdom population between the ages of 7 and 16 (N=510,339).

Reliability evidence

Internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha) was estimated for each scale based on a study of 638,000 English students in 2015–16 and 2016–17. Reliability coefficients are reported for only two subscales: Feelings about school (0.90) and preparedness for learning (0.82) (GL Assessment, 2011).

Validity evidence
Evidence based on content
Initial items developed and reviewed by experts from UK-based universities and local authorities (GL Assessment, 2011).
Evidence based on response processes
Survey was pilot-tested with over 14,000 school age young people between the ages of 8 and 16. (GL Assessment, 2011; Williams et al., 2005).
Evidence based on internal structure
Exploratory Factor Analysis demonstrated that the items clustered into nine factors (GL Assessment, 2011).
Evidence based on relations with other variables
PASS scores correlated positively with student attendance and also generally correlated positively with New Group Reading Test scores, with correlations ranging from 0.38 (response to curriculum demands for students aged 7–11) to -0.03 (students aged 12–14 attitudes toward teachers).
Locating the Measure
Obtaining a copy of the measure passforschools.com

"Overview of the development, reliability and validity of PASS," GL Assessment, 2011.

Williams, G. Whittome, B. & Watts, P. , "Attitude Measurement to Bridge the Post-16 Gap," Hillier, Y. & Thompson, A. (Eds.) Readings in Post-Compulsory Education, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005.


Measure summary updated September 29, 2020.