Free Time Motivation Scale for Adolescents (FTMSA)

General Information on the Measure
Purpose of the measure

The Free Time Motivation Scale for Adolescents (FTMSA) can be used to understand the choices adolescents make about how they spend their free time.

Main constructs measured

Intrapersonal competencies

Applicable grade levels

6th-8th grade

Publication year for the most recent version


Year originally developed


Related measures
Measure Administration


Method of administration

Paper/Pencil, Digital

Number of items


Item format

Four- and five-point Likert-type scale

Administration time

No information is available in the references reviewed.

Available languages


Fee for use Free and publicly available
Credentials required for administration


Overall score reporting

No overall scores are reported.

Subscore reporting

There are five subscores:

  • Amotivation
  • External
  • Introjected
  • Identified
  • Intrinsic motivation
Scoring procedures

The measure is self-scored.

Interpretive information

No information is available in the references reviewed.

Evidence of Technical Quality
Populations for which technical quality evidence has been collected

Evidence is based on a sample of 7th grade students (N=634) (Baldwin & Caldwell, 2003).

Reliability evidence

Internal consistency (alpha) estimates were calculated separately by subscale and sample. Estimates ranged from 0.55 to 0.92.

Validity evidence
Evidence based on content
Items adapted from existing inventories including the Self Regulation Questionnaire (Ryan & Connell, 1989) and the Academic Motivation Scale (Vallerand et al., 1992).
Evidence based on response processes
Cognitive interviews with children (N=8) to improve item clarity (Baldwin & Caldwell, 2003).
Evidence based on internal structure
Confirmatory Factor Analysis was used to substantiate the five factor structure (Baldwin & Caldwell, 2003).
Evidence based on relations with other variables
No information is available in the references reviewed.
Locating the Measure
Obtaining a copy of the measure

Baldwin, C. K., & Caldwell, L. L. "Development of the free time motivation scale for adolescents," Journal of Leisure Research, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2003, pp. 129–151.

Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., Blais, M. R., Briere, N. M., Senecal, C, & Vallieres, E. F. "The academic motivation scale: A measure of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in education," Educational and Psychological Measurement, Vol. 52, 1992, pp. 1003–1017.

Ryan, R. M., & Connell, J. P. "Perceived locus of causality and internalization: Examining reasons for acting in two domains," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 57, 1989, pp. 749–761.


Measure summary updated October 3, 2018.