School Motivation Questionnaire (SMQ)

General Information on the Measure
Purpose of the measure

The School Motivation Questionnaire (SMQ) measures motivation orientations in children.

Main constructs measured

Intrapersonal competencies; Interpersonal competencies

Applicable grade levels

Grades 6-12

Publication year for the most recent version

2003

Year originally developed

2003

Related measures
Measure Administration
Respondent

Student

Method of administration

Paper/Pencil

Number of items

44

Item format

Five-point Likert-type scale

Administration time

No information is available in the references reviewed.

Available languages

English

Fee for use Free and publicly available
Credentials required for administration

None

Scoring
Overall score reporting

No overall scores are reported.

Subscore reporting

There are eight subscores:

  • Mastery orientation
  • Intrinsic motivation
  • Cooperative orientation
  • Individual orientation
  • Ego orientation
  • Competition orientation
  • Orientation to approach success
  • Orientation to avoid failure
Scoring procedures

No information is available in the references reviewed.

Interpretive information

No information is available in the references reviewed.

Evidence of Technical Quality
Populations for which technical quality evidence has been collected

The sample was of high-achieving students from 23 primary schools in Sydney Australia (N=606).

Reliability evidence

Internal consistency (coefficient omega) estimates ranged from 0.80 to higher than 0.90 (Marsh et al., 2003). Test-retest reliability estimates (8 months) ranged from 0.53 to 0.66 (Marsh et al., 2003).

Validity evidence
Evidence based on content
No information is available in the references reviewed.
Evidence based on response processes
A small pilot study was conducted with students and students were interviewed about item meanings and their response motivations (Marsh et al., 2003).
Evidence based on internal structure
Confirmatory factor analysis was used to substantiate eight subscales (Marsh et al., 2003). There was evidence of factorial invariance across time.
Evidence based on relations with other variables
No information is available in the references reviewed.
Locating the Measure
Obtaining a copy of the measure tandfonline.com
References

Marsh, H. W., Craven, R. G., Hinkley, J. W., & Debus, R. L. "Evaluation of the Big-Two-Factor Theory of academic motivation orientations: An evaluation of jingle-jangle fallacies," Multivariate Behavioral Research, 38, 2, 2003, pp. 189–224.

Notes

Measure summary updated October 3, 2018.