School Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory-Teen Form (SMALSI)

General Information on the Measure
Purpose of the measure

The School Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory (SMALSI) Teen Form assesses learning strategies and can be used by educators to identify strengths and weaknesses and administer appropriate interventions.

Main constructs measured

Cognitive competencies; Intrapersonal competencies

Applicable grade levels

Ages 13-18

Publication year for the most recent version


Year originally developed


Related measures
Measure Administration


Method of administration

Paper/Pencil, Digital

Number of items


Item format

Four-point Likert-type scale

Administration time

20-30 minutes

Available languages

English, Danish, Japanese, Romanian

Fee for use Fee charged by developer
Credentials required for administration

Qualification Level B

Overall score reporting

No overall scores are reported.

Subscore reporting

There are ten subscores:

  • Study strategies
  • Note taking/Listening skills
  • Reading/Comprehension strategies
  • Writing/Research skills
  • Test-taking strategies
  • Organizational techniques
  • Time management
  • Low academic motivation
  • Test anxiety
  • Concentration difficulty
Scoring procedures

The measure is self-scored. Alternatively, automated scoring services are available from the assessment developers.

Interpretive information

Normalized T-scores and percentile rank scores are reported.

Evidence of Technical Quality
Populations for which technical quality evidence has been collected

Evidence was collected from students from public schools in the United States ages 13-18 (N=1,100).

Reliability evidence

Internal consistency (alpha) estimates are all 0.70 and above (Stroud & Reynolds, 2006).

Validity evidence
Evidence based on content
Initial items developed by clinicians and experts in child and school psychology (Stroud & Reynolds, 2006).
Evidence based on response processes
Items were piloted and then reviewed, and unclear items were removed from the instrument (Stroud & Reynolds, 2006).
Evidence based on internal structure
Interscale correlations were examined to support the existence of distinct scales (Stroud & Reynolds, 2006). Gender differences occurred in SMALSI scores consistent with developer expectations (Stroud & Reynolds, 2006).
Evidence based on relations with other variables
SMALSI scores significantly correlated in the anticipated direction with Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) scores and Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) scores (Stroud & Reynolds, 2006).
Locating the Measure
Obtaining a copy of the measure

Chatham Stroud, K. & Reynolds, C. R. "School Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory Manual," Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services, 2006.


Measure summary updated October 3, 2018.