Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience Scales-Parent (SEARS-P)

General Information on the Measure
Purpose of the measure

SEARS is a strength-based social-emotional assessment for children that can be used for screening, intervention planning and monitoring, and research.

Main constructs measured

Intrapersonal competencies; Interpersonal competencies

Applicable grade levels

Ages 5-18

Publication year for the most recent version


Year originally developed


Related measures
Measure Administration


Method of administration

Paper/Pencil, Digital

Number of items


Item format

Four-point Likert-type scale

Administration time

20 minutes

Available languages

English, Spanish

Fee for use Fee charged by developer
Credentials required for administration

Qualification Level B

Overall score reporting

A total score is reported.

Subscore reporting

There are six subscores:

  • Self regulation/responsibility
  • Social competence
  • Empathy
Scoring procedures

A scoring manual and online scoring service are provided by the assessment developers.

Interpretive information

SEARS-P is standardized and norm-referenced. The norming sample included children from diverse backgrounds and children with a wide range of disabilities.

Evidence of Technical Quality
Populations for which technical quality evidence has been collected

Evidence is based on a nationally representative sample of students (N=1,204).

Reliability evidence

There is a total score internal consistency estimate of 0.96. Subscale consistency estimates range from 0.87 to 0.95.

Validity evidence
Evidence based on content
Content and items reviewed by expert validation panel.
Evidence based on response processes
Readability analysis conducted of items.
Evidence based on internal structure
No information available in the references reviewed.
Evidence based on relations with other variables
Significant correlations with other measures of similar constructs including the Social Skills Rating Scale, Internalizing Symptoms Scale for Children, Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale, Student Life Satisfaction Scale, School Social Behavior Scales, and Home and Community Social Behavior Scales.
Locating the Measure
Obtaining a copy of the measure

Merrell, K. W. , "Social and emotional assets and resilience scales (SEARS)," Psychological Assessment Resources, 2011.

Merrell, Kenneth W., Bradley P. Cohn, and Karalyn M. Tom, ""Development and validation of a teacher report measure for assessing social-emotional strengths of children and adolescents."," School Psychology Review , 40, 2, 2011, pp. 226.

Gresham, F. M., & Elliott, S. N. , "Social skills rating system (SSRS)," American Guidance Service, 1990.

Merrell, K. W., McClun, L. A., Kempf, K. K., & Lund, J, "Using self-report assessment to identify children with internalizing problems: Validity of the internalizing symptoms scale for children," Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 20, 3, 2002, pp. 223–239.

Epstein, M. H. , "Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale: A Strength-Based Approach to Assessment: Examiner's Manual," Pro-Ed, 2004.

Huebner, E. S. , "Initial development of the student's life satisfaction scale," School Psychology International, 12, 3, 1991, pp. 231–240.

Merrell, K. W., & Caldarella, P. , "Home & community social behavior scales user's guide," Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company, 2002.

Merrell, K. W. , "School social behavior scales user's guide," Paul H. Brookes Publishing, 2008.


Measure summary updated October 3, 2018.