Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire (ARQ)

General Information on the Measure
Purpose of the measure

The Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire (ARQ) measures adolescents' resilience and their capacity to achieve positive outcomes despite stressors. It includes measures of resilience within self, and in family, school, peer, and community domains.

Main constructs measured

Intrapersonal competencies

Applicable grade levels

Ages 12-18

Publication year for the most recent version


Year originally developed


Related measures
Measure Administration


Method of administration


Number of items


Item format

Five-point Likert-type scale

Administration time

10-15 minutes

Available languages

English, Dutch, Hindi, Persian, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Filipino

Fee for use Access may be limited or unavailable
Credentials required for administration


Overall score reporting

No overall scores are reported.

Subscore reporting

There are 12 subscores that can be grouped into self, family, peer, school, and community domains:

  • Negative cognition (self)
  • Emotional insight (self)
  • Empathy (self)
  • Social skills (self)
  • Confidence (self)
  • Connectedness (family)
  • Availability (family)
  • Connectedness (peer)
  • Availability (peer)
  • Supportive school environment (school)
  • Connectedness (school)
  • Connectedness (community)
Scoring procedures

The measure is self-scored.

Interpretive information

No information is available in the references reviewed.

Evidence of Technical Quality
Populations for which technical quality evidence has been collected

Pilot sample of year-nine students attending Catholic schools in Victoria, Australia (N=330) as well as adolescents with chronic illnesses (N=247). A second sample of students from 11 randomly selected Victorian Government Schools (N=451) completed the revised questionnaire (Gartland et al, 2011).

Reliability evidence

Internal consistency (alpha) coefficients range from 0.60 to 0.90 (Gartland et al., 2011).

Validity evidence
Evidence based on content
No information is available in the references reviewed.
Evidence based on response processes
Based on a pilot administration, items were deleted or revised if they were identified by respondents as difficult to understand (Gartland et al., 2011).
Evidence based on internal structure
Exploratory factor analysis was used to find evidence supporting the 12 subscales (Gartland et al., 2011).
Evidence based on relations with other variables
No information is available in the references reviewed.
Locating the Measure
Obtaining a copy of the measure or request it from the author:

Gartland, Deirdre, Lyndal Bond, Craig A. Olsson, Simone Buzwell, and Susan M. Sawyer, "Development of a multi-dimensional measure of resilience in adolescents: the Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire," BMC Medical Research Methodology, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2011, pp. 134.


Measure summary updated October 3, 2018.