Child and Adolescent Wellness Scale (CAWS)

General Information on the Measure
Purpose of the measure

The Child and Adolescent Wellness Scale (CAWS) is a self-report instrument that assesses the social and emotional competencies of children and adolescents. It has been used primarily for research purposes.

Main constructs measured

Intrapersonal competencies; Interpersonal competencies

Applicable grade levels

Middle school and high school students

Publication year for the most recent version


Year originally developed


Related measures
Measure Administration


Method of administration


Number of items


Item format

Four-point Likert-type scale

Administration time

25 to 30 minutes

Available languages


Fee for use Access may be limited or unavailable
Credentials required for administration


Overall score reporting

The overall score is calculated.

Subscore reporting

There are ten subscores:

  • Adaptability
  • Conscientiousness
  • Connectedness
  • Emotional self-regulation
  • Empathy
  • Initiative
  • Mindfulness
  • Optimism
  • Self-efficacy
  • Social competence
Scoring procedures

The measure is self-scored.

Interpretive information

No information is available in the references reviewed.

Evidence of Technical Quality
Populations for which technical quality evidence has been collected

Students in grades 6 to 12 in a charter school in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States (N=281) (Copeland et al., 2011).

Reliability evidence

Internal consistency estimates for the subscales ranged from 0.75 to 0.86. Overall score reliability was estimated at 0.97 (Copeland et al., 2011). Total test-retest reliability (four-week interval) was 0.78.

Validity evidence
Evidence based on content
A representative sample of psychologists, counselors, teachers, administrators, nurses, physicians, parents, and university faculty rank ordered constructs to determine assessment coverage.
Evidence based on response processes
A pilot test was used to eliminate items that reduced internal consistency (Copeland et al., 2011).
Evidence based on internal structure
Factor analysis supported a unidimensional structure (Copeland et al., 2011).
Evidence based on relations with other variables
Overall scores correlated with self-report ratings from the Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Survey (Huebner, 2001).
Locating the Measure
Obtaining a copy of the measure

Copeland, E. P., Nelson, R. B., & Traughber, M. C. "Wellness dimensions relate to happiness in children and adolescents," Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2010, pp. 25–37.

Huebner, S. "Manual for the Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale," University of South Carolina, 2001.


Measure summary updated October 3, 2018.