Expectancy-Value-Cost Scale (EVC)

General Information on the Measure
Purpose of the measure

The Expectancy-Value-Cost Scale (EVC) is a 10-item self-report survey designed to measure student motivation in math and science classrooms. It can be used by researchers to study motivation or the effectiveness of classroom interventions or by teachers to tailor classroom instruction.

Main constructs measured

Intrapersonal competencies

Applicable grade levels

Middle school

Publication year for the most recent version


Year originally developed


Related measures
Measure Administration


Method of administration


Number of items


Item format

Six-point Likert-type scale

Administration time

Five minutes

Available languages


Fee for use Free and publicly available
Credentials required for administration


Overall score reporting

No overall scores are reported.

Subscore reporting

There are three subscores:

  • Expectancy
  • Value
  • Cost
Scoring procedures

The measure is self-scored.

Interpretive information

No information is available in the references reviewed.

Evidence of Technical Quality
Populations for which technical quality evidence has been collected

Evidence was collected from students at a diverse middle school in the southeastern region of the United States (N=401).

Reliability evidence

The internal consistency estimates (coefficient omega) were calculated separately for math and science classrooms. In math, estimates ranged from 0.84 to 0.88, and in science, from 0.87 to 0.88. Test-retest reliabilities (estimated from longitudinal invariance models) ranged from 0.074 to 0.82 in math and 0.62 to 0.73 in science (Kosovich et al., 2014).

Validity evidence
Evidence based on content
No information is available in the references reviewed.
Evidence based on response processes
No information is available in the references reviewed.
Evidence based on internal structure
Confirmatory factor analysis was used to justify the three-factor structure corresponding to the expectancy, value, and cost domains. There was some evidence of measurement non-invariance by gender (Kosovich et al., 2014).
Evidence based on relations with other variables
EVC subscale scores correlated with math and science achievement (Kosovich et al., 2014).
Locating the Measure
Obtaining a copy of the measure doi.org

Kosovich, Jeff J., Chris S. Hulleman, Kenneth E. Barron, and Steve Getty, "A practical measure of student motivation: Establishing validity evidence for the expectancy-value-cost scale in middle school," The Journal of Early Adolescence, Vol. 35, No. 5-6, 2015, pp. 790–816.


Measure summary updated October 3, 2018.