Elementary Social Behavior Assessment (ESBA)

General Information on the Measure
Purpose of the measure

The ESBA is a 12-item teacher report scale designed to measure positive social skills that can be used for screening in elementary classrooms.

Main constructs measured

Intrapersonal competencies; Interpersonal competencies

Applicable grade levels

Grades K-6

Publication year for the most recent version


Year originally developed


Related measures
Measure Administration


Method of administration


Number of items


Item format

Three-point Likert-type scale

Administration time

No information is available in the references reviewed.

Available languages


Fee for use Fee charged by developer
Credentials required for administration

Rater training is required for use.

Overall score reporting

The overall score is reported.

Subscore reporting

No subscores are reported.

Scoring procedures

The measure is self-scored.

Interpretive information

No information is available in the references reviewed.

Evidence of Technical Quality
Populations for which technical quality evidence has been collected

There were two population samples: The first sample included nine elementary school teachers from a single elementary school in a small city in the Northwest United States (N=187). The second sample included 70 teachers and their students (N=1,616) in K-3 classrooms across four school districts in California, Oregon, and Washington.

Reliability evidence

Internal consistency (alpha) estimate of 0.95 (Pennefather & Smallkowski, 2015).

Validity evidence
Evidence based on content
Items adapted from existing inventories of teacher-preferred student behaviors (Hersh & Walker, 1983; Walker, 1986; Walker & Rankin, 1983). Items were rated by regular and special education teachers in the U.S. (N=1,110) with regard to their importance for successful school adjustment.
Evidence based on response processes
No information is available in the references reviewed.
Evidence based on internal structure
Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a unidimensional factor model (Pennefather & Smolkowski, 2015).
Evidence based on relations with other variables
ESBA scores correlated significantly with other measures of child behavior, including the Brief Behavior Rating Scale (Gresham et al, 2010) and the Walker-McConnel Scale of Social Competence (Walker & McConnell, 1995).
Locating the Measure
Obtaining a copy of the measure intensiveintervention.org

Pennefather, J. T., & Smolkowski, K. "Validation of the Elementary Social Behavior Assessment: A measure of student prosocial school behaviors," Assessment for Effective Intervention, Vol. 40, No. 3, 2015, pp. 143–154.

Hersh, R., & Walker, H. M. "Great expectations: Making schools effective for all students," Policy Studies Review, Vol. 2, 1983, pp. 147–188.

Walker, H. M. "The Assessment for Integration Into Mainstream Settings (AIMS) assessment system: Rationale, instruments, procedures and outcomes," Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, Vol. 15, 1986, pp. 55–63.

Walker, H. M., & Rankin, R. "Assessing the behavior expectations and demands of less restrictive settings," School Psychology Review, Vol. 12, 1983, pp. 274–284.

Gresham, F. M., Cook, C., Collins, T., Rasethwane, K., Truelson, E., & Grant, S. "Developing a change-sensitive brief behavior rating scale as a progress monitoring tool for social behavior: An example using the Social Skills Rating System– Teacher Form." School Psychology Review, Vol. 39, 2010, pp. 364–379.

Walker, H. M., & McConnell, S. R. "Walker-McConnell Scale of Social Competence and School Adjustment: Elementary Version technical manual," Singular Publishing Group, 1995.


Measure summary updated October 3, 2018.