Glossary of Terms for the Catalog of Programs
Approach: Program approaches correspond to four key functions at DCoE: provision of clinical care; education or training regarding psychological health and/or TBI, including the provision of information regarding these conditions, activities to prevent psychological health problems or TBI or increase resilience in the face of potential psychological health challenges, and outreach to connect members of the military community to needed services.
Costs to participants: Many programs offer services at no cost to participants, while some may require participants to pay for services or their participation costs may be covered by TRICARE or another source.
Deployment phase: Programs that are accessible to their participants and provide similar content throughout all deployment phases, such as the Real Warriors Campaign, are listed as “not related to deployment.” In contrast, if all four deployment phases are listed, the program has separate activities for each phase. This is relevant for such programs as the Yellow Ribbon Reintegration Program, which has separate workshops for service members and family members during the four deployment phases. If fewer than four deployment phases are listed, the program has some activities targeted toward participants in each of the indicated phases.
DoD-wide programs and branch of service: Programs that are described as “DoD-wide” are available to targeted participants from all branches of service. A small number of DoD-wide programs are located at a single installation but serve participants from across DoD. Programs that serve an individual branch of service or multiple branches of service (e.g., Navy, Marine Corps) are listed as such.
Domain: The description of program domain is based an expanded biopsychosocial model that includes programs that focus on biological, psychological, social, spiritual, and/or holistic aspects of the experiences of service members and their families.
Evidence-based interventions: Programs with evidence-based interventions have activities and/or interventions that have been evaluated and shown to be effective in one or more research studies or evaluations. This information was supplied by the interviewees; RAND did not independently assess the strength of the evidence base for the programs.
Funding source: Our inclusion criteria require that a program be sponsored or funded by DoD, including funding through any DoD office, activity, agency, service, or command; the VA/DoD Joint Incentive Fund; a DoD memorandum of understanding or memorandum of agreement; or by one of the branches of service. Some lines of funding we identified include Program Objective Memorandum (POM)/Defense Health Program, LOA-2 (see Chapter One), government contracts, and government grants.
Impetus or motivation: The impetus or motivation section describes why the program was started, including any task force recommendations, authorizations under the National Defense Authorization Act in a particular year, or other circumstances that motivated the creation and implementation of the program. When applicable, this includes information about any formal military doctrine, policy, or instruction that authorizes or mandates the existence of the program.
Installation: Some programs provide services at one or more individual installations. If applicable, the program descriptions in Appendix B include information reflecting the installations on which the program was operating at the time of interview.
Issues: Programs focus on a wide variety of clinical issues, including one of more of the following: depression, PTSD, substance use, suicide prevention, TBI, and general psychological health. In addition, they may focus on one or more of the following nonclinical issues: deployment- related issues, domestic violence, family and/or children, legal, post-deployment reintegration, relationships, resilience, spiritual, stress reduction, or other issues.
Mode of service delivery: The mode of service delivery describes the manner in which the program provides services to participants. Common delivery modes include: in a classroom, face to face in a group setting, face to face individually, services provided through the Internet, the distribution of outreach or educational materials, and service delivery via telephone and/or video teleconference. Many programs employ more than one mode of delivery.
No interview was conducted: This information was developed from publicly available documentation. The 24 programs that include this statement were those that we were unable to interview but for which were able to develop a description of the program from publicly available documentation, primarily obtained via the Internet.
Outreach: Outreach describes the efforts of a program to reach its target population and inform them of the program’s objectives and activities. Common marketing methods include flyers, the Internet, mailings, physician referral, posters, and word of mouth. Many programs employ more than one approach.
Pilot program: A pilot program is an activity planned as a test or a trial before a decision is made about whether it should be broadly implemented.
Potential barriers to participation: Program barriers can be related to problems implementing or sustaining a program, such as not having leadership support or lacking adequate resources. Barriers can also affect the target audience’s ability to participate in the program, such as having a schedule that precludes participation in the program’s activities.
Program staff’s effort to assess success: Assessment of success includes current monitoring, assessment, or evaluative efforts by program staff to measure or understand program effectiveness. This should not be confused with the description of evidence-based interventions, which describes the extent to which the content of the program is based on material that has been shown to be effective in the past, rather than the program’s efforts to assess its own success.
Relationship to other programs: Many of the programs in Appendix B are related to other programs in this report in a variety of ways, including programs in different branches of service that originate from the same DoD policy and those that have related content and use the same program materials.
Staffing: Information on program staffing includes information on clinical, nonclinical, and administrative staff who contribute to the program’s activities.
Targeted participants: Our inclusion criteria require that all programs include active-duty, National Guard, and/or Reserve component service members and/or their family members as their target population. In addition, many programs also serve veterans and/or civilians. Programs that target civilians (including civilian health care providers) to support them in caring for service members have both “civilians” and “service members” marked as their targeted participants.