Published Research

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  • Russian President Vladimir Putin shakes hands with Chinese President Xi Jinping during their meeting on the sidelines of a BRICS summit, in Brasilia, Brazil, November 13, 2019, photo by Ramil Sitdikov/Sputnik via Reuters


    China-Russia Cooperation: Determining Factors, Future Trajectories, Implications for the United States

    Since 2014, China and Russia have strengthened their relationship. In this report, the authors seek to understand the impact of the Chinese-Russian relationship on the United States and implications for future U.S. policy.

    Oct 12, 2021

    Andrew Radin, Andrew Scobell, Elina Treyger, J.D. Williams, Logan Ma, Howard J. Shatz, Sean M. Zeigler, Eugeniu Han, Clint Reach

  • Brochure


    Select RAND Research on China: 1999-2019

    This volume is an important resource for anyone who is interested in gaining an informed understanding of China, a major strategic competitor of the United States in the economic, technological, diplomatic, and security realms.

    Oct 7, 2021

  • Russian soldiers man a checkpoint near the Georgian village of Kekhvi in breakaway South Ossetia, August 21, 2008, photo by Vasily Fedosenko/Reuters


    Anticipating Adversary Military Interventions

    The authors explore where, how, and how often U.S. adversaries (specifically, Russia, China, and Iran) have intervened militarily since 1946 and identify why these adversaries initiated military interventions and why they might do so in the future.

    Sep 27, 2021

    Jennifer Kavanagh, Bryan Frederick, Nathan Chandler, Samuel Charap, Timothy R. Heath, Ariane M. Tabatabai, Edward Geist, Christian Curriden

  • Russian soldiers aboard an armoured vehicle in western Georgia in AUgust of 2008


    Russia's Military Interventions: Patterns, Drivers, and Signposts

    Despite Russia's relatively small global economic footprint, it has engaged in more interventions than any other U.S. competitor since 1991. In this report, the authors assess when, where, and why Russia conducts military interventions.

    Sep 27, 2021

    Samuel Charap, Edward Geist, Bryan Frederick, John J. Drennan, Nathan Chandler, Jennifer Kavanagh

  • Naval personnel from China's base in Djibouti, participate in a military parade in Djibouti City


    China's Military Interventions: Patterns, Drivers, and Signposts

    China has undertaken two broad types of military interventions in its post-1949 history. The authors assess which one of two patterns is likely to predominate in China's future and on what factors the answer to this question is likely to depend.

    Sep 27, 2021

    Timothy R. Heath, Christian Curriden, Bryan Frederick, Nathan Chandler, Jennifer Kavanagh

  • An Iranian Army soldier gestures during an exercise in Fars province in 2020


    Iran's Military Interventions: Patterns, Drivers, and Signposts

    In this report, the authors assess when, where, why, and how Iran conducts military interventions and identify key signposts of Iranian military interventions that can be used as early warning indicators for U.S. military planners.

    Sep 27, 2021

    Ariane M. Tabatabai, Nathan Chandler, Bryan Frederick, Jennifer Kavanagh

  • Report


    Operational Unpredictability and Deterrence: Evaluating Options for Complicating Adversary Decisionmaking

    This report assesses whether and how the U.S. military might utilize unpredictability in force employment, posture, and operations to deter adversaries and identifies the possible risks and costs of such approaches.

    Aug 11, 2021

    Miranda Priebe, Angela O'Mahony, Bryan Frederick, Alyssa Demus, Bonny Lin, Michelle Grisé, Derek Eaton, Abby Doll

  • Soldiers participate in training at Camp Ripley, Minnesota, June 5, 2021, photo by Sgt. Mahsima Alkamooneh/U.S. Army

    Research Brief

    Can the U.S. Military Strengthen Deterrence by Becoming More Operationally Unpredictable?

    This brief assesses how the United States might deter adversaries from attacking U.S. allies by increasing adversary uncertainty about how the United States would fight.

    Aug 11, 2021

    Miranda Priebe, Angela O'Mahony, Bryan Frederick, Alyssa Demus, Bonny Lin, Michelle Grisé, Derek Eaton, Abby Doll

  • Journal Article

    Journal Article

    Winning the 5g Race with China: A U.S.-Japan Strategy to Trip the Competition, Run Faster, and Put the Fix In

    This article argues that China's 5G wireless information and communications technology poses serious risks to privacy and national security and describes a U.S.-Japan strategy for countering these threats.

    Aug 10, 2021

    Scott W. Harold, Rika Kamijima-Tsunoda

  • Members of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force and a U.S. Army captain examine a field artillery safety diagram at Yausubetsu Training Area, Japan, photo by U.S. Army


    Preparing Japan's Multi-Domain Defense Force for the Future Battlespace Using Emerging Technologies

    RAND researchers explore how emerging technology areas, such as artificial intelligence and unmanned systems, may shape defense operations in the future, with a particular focus on Japan's need to keep pace with other countries' capabilities.

    Jul 29, 2021

    Jeffrey W. Hornung, Scott Savitz, Jonathan Balk, Samantha McBirney, Liam McLane, Victoria M. Smith

  • A staff member stands in front of the launchpad at Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center ahead of the Shenzhou-12 mission to build China's space station, near Jiuquan, Gansu Province, China, June 16, 2021, photo by Carlos Garcia Rawlins/Reuters


    Tailoring Deterrence for China in Space

    The authors examine the application of classical deterrence theory to the space domain and argue that to build a tailored deterrence strategy for China in space, China's own objectives should be considered.

    Jul 27, 2021

    Krista Langeland, Derek Grossman

  • Staff members of the Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency promote social distancing at the Ikorodu Community School in Lagos, Nigeria, photo by Adeyinka Yusuf/Getty Images


    The COVID-19 Pandemic in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Opportunity to Rethink Strategic Competition on the Continent

    This Perspective assesses the implications of COVID-19 on strategic competition in sub-Saharan Africa and offers recommendations for how the United States can help African countries respond to the pandemic in ways that are mutually beneficial.

    Jul 20, 2021

    Michael Shurkin, Alexander Noyes, Mary Kate Adgie

  • Spectators watch a Russian Sukhoi Su-57 fighter jet landing after a demonstration flight at the MAKS-2019 air show in Zhukovsky outside Moscow, Russia August 29, 2019, photo by Tatyana Makeyeva/Reuters


    Defense Acquisition in Russia and China

    This report discusses recent research into the research, development, and acquisition processes of Russia and China—both doctrinally and in practice—and identifies areas in which each country excels and where each country has challenges.

    Jul 14, 2021

    Mark Ashby, Caolionn O'Connell, Edward Geist, Jair Aguirre, Christian Curriden, Jon Fujiwara

  • Earth partially covered by Chinese Yuan, image by Stephen Finn/Adobe Stock


    Understanding Influence in the Strategic Competition with China

    This report examines China's ability to use various mechanisms of influence to shape the policies and behavior of 20 countries, as well as the lessons that these examples offer for the United States' strategic competition with China.

    Jun 30, 2021

    Michael J. Mazarr, Bryan Frederick, John J. Drennan, Emily Ellinger, Kelly Elizabeth Eusebi, Bryan Rooney, Andrew Stravers, Emily Yoder

  • A journalist sits next to a screen showing Chinese President Xi Jinping delivering a speech via video for the opening ceremony of the 2020 China International Fair for Trade in Services (CIFTIS), at a media centre in Beijing, China September 4, 2020, photo by Tingshu Wang/Reuters


    U.S. Strategic Competition with China: A RAND Research Primer

    This Perspective presents key aspects from past RAND Corporation research on the strategic competition between China and the United States, as U.S. policymakers grapple with how best to manage a challenge that is different from those of the past.

    Jun 22, 2021

    Timothy R. Heath

  • Russian President Putin addresses the audience during Moscow City Day celebrations in Moscow, Russia, September 5, 2020, photo by Sputnik/Alexei Druzhinin/Kremlin via Reuters


    Russia's Global Interests and Actions: Growing Reach to Match Rejuvenated Capabilities

    This perspective informs the subject of Russia's global ambitions and actions—its key interests and objectives and its foreign policy approaches to pursuing or protecting them.

    Jun 15, 2021

    Bruce McClintock, Jeffrey W. Hornung, Katherine Costello

  • Journal Article

    Journal Article

    Bomber Strike Packages with Chinese Characteristics

    This book chapter traces the development of China's bomber strike packages and assesses how these flights support operational training for Chinese air force wartime missions.

    Jun 10, 2021

    Nathan Beauchamp-Mustafaga

  • China outlined in red on a NASA image of Earth, photo by NASA and RomoloTavani/Getty Images


    China's Quest for Global Primacy: An Analysis of Chinese International and Defense Strategies to Outcompete the United States

    This research explores possible strategies that China might employ to outcompete the United States. The authors of this report aim to support U.S. planning, educate readers about Chinese strategy, and spur discussion on U.S.-China competition.

    Jun 7, 2021

    Timothy R. Heath, Derek Grossman, Asha Clark

  • War, military threat, military power concept. China. Tanks toy near chinese flag on black background top view, photo by 9dreamstudio/AdobeStock


    Deciphering Chinese Deterrence Signalling in the New Era: An Analytic Framework and Seven Case Studies

    The authors examine how China's approach to deterrence signalling is evolving along with its expanding objectives, growing military capabilities, and the availability of new communication channels—and how regional countries should respond.

    May 27, 2021

    Nathan Beauchamp-Mustafaga, Derek Grossman, Kristen Gunness, Michael S. Chase, Marigold Black, Natalia D. Simmons-Thomas

  • An Indian Air Force Dassault Rafale fighter


    Regional Responses to U.S.-China Competition in the Indo-Pacific: India

    This report examines the potential benefits of, and potential impediments to, partnering more closely with India in long-term strategic competition with China.

    May 24, 2021

    Jonah Blank