Opening and Closing the Doors

Evaluating Immigration Reform and Control

by Frank D. Bean, Georges Vernez, Charles B. Keely


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Large-scale immigration has always been part of the American experience, viewed as both an opportunity for immigrants and as a benefit to the nation. But Americans can also be ambivalent about immigration as it affects jobs. A period of large-scale immigration began in the early 1970s and culminated in passage of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA). This report provides the context within which the effects of IRCA — whose provisions included changes in employment, agricultural labor, civil rights, and federal reimbursement policies and programs — can be evaluated.

This report is part of the RAND Corporation Joint report immigration series. The joint report was a product of the RAND Corporation from 1988 to 1993 that included documents published jointly with other organizations, which transmitted major research findings and final research.

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