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For most of their history in the U.S. military services, women have faced stringent limits on where they could serve, what they could do, and what units they could join. This has changed over the last decade. But has opening new skills and units to women been enough? Do barriers remain that bar women even from some formally open occupations? The authors broadly assessed female representation in newly open occupations, then examined ten specific occupations in detail. Success has been mixed, in part because of the circumstances of individual occupations. For example, accession and assignment limitations have a more significant influence on representation than the nature of the work itself or women's success relative to men in training. In fact, some things — such as retention and choice of aircraft — are issues for men as well as women. Moreover, some of the early successes could be subject to the pioneer effect. Among the authors' recommendations is female representation needs to be analyzed and understood by occupation.

Table of Contents

  • Preface PDF

  • Tables PDF

  • Summary PDF

  • Acknowledgements

    Acknowledgments PDF

  • Abbreviations PDF

  • Chapter One

    Introduction PDF

  • Chapter Two

    Data Analysis: Summary of Representation of Women in the Services PDF

  • Chapter Three

    Examination of Selected Occupations PDF

  • Chapter Four

    Conclusions, Recommendations, and Policy Implications PDF

  • Bibliography PDF

The research described in this report was performed under the auspices of RAND's National Security Research Division.

This report is part of the RAND Corporation monograph report series. The monograph/report was a product of the RAND Corporation from 1993 to 2003. RAND monograph/reports presented major research findings that addressed the challenges facing the public and private sectors. They included executive summaries, technical documentation, and synthesis pieces.

The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.