We would like to express our gratitude to Lieutenant General Alcide M. LaNoue, The Surgeon General of the U.S. Army, and Major General Thomas R. Tempel, Deputy Surgeon General of the U.S. Army, the sponsors of this study. We also are grateful to Major General James B. Peake and Brigadier General Harold L. Timboe for their valuable input to this report.

In addition, we would like to acknowledge the assistance of the staff officers of the Office of The Army Surgeon General for providing access to unpublished data and for sharing their own experiences in planning or undertaking the operations examined in this report. In particular, we would like to acknowledge the valuable input of COL John W. Zurcher, COL C. Greg Stevens, COL Robert J. Poux, COL Gerald A. Palmer, LTC David S. Heintz, LTC David W. Williams, MAJ Jeffrey M. Unger, MAJ Michael C. Gunn, and the staff officers within the Directorate of Health Care Operations, Office of The Surgeon General.

Our thanks are also due to COL Paul S. Beaty for shepherding this product through and for ensuring that we received timely input from various elements within the Army Medical Department (AMEDD). As a result of his efforts, this report has benefited from the careful review of a number of individuals within the AMEDD. Specifically, we would like to acknowledge the 44th Medical Brigade, COL Dale Carroll, COL Lester Martinez-Lopez, LTC Deogracia Quinones, and LTC John A. Haynie. In addition, we would like to express our gratitude to COL David Nolan for his valuable input and thoughtful review of an earlier draft of this report.

We interviewed a number of AMEDD personnel who had participated in these operations and who gave freely of their time, without whose insights this report would not have been possible. Although they are too numerous to mention here, we gratefully acknowledge their input to this study. We also express our thanks to the individual commanders interviewed for their in-depth comments and candid assessments of the various operations and lessons learned. We are grateful to the Navy and Air Force officers and commanders who supported the U.S. military's medical mission in the Balkans and whose valuable insights on this operation significantly contributed to understanding the complex issues associated with coalition operations. Lastly, we thank the medical and dental personnel from Womack Army Medical Center and the Fort Bragg Dental Activity.

Patient and provider data for the two case studies were obtained from the Directorate of Patient Administrations Systems and Biostatistics Activities, AMEDD Center and School, Fort Sam Houston, Texas. We thank COL Stuart Baker, Director, Mrs. Francie McQueeney, and Mrs. Deborah Ferrell for providing access to these data and in a format needed for our analyses. We also acknowledge CAPT James Carlisle, Naval Medical Center, San Diego, California, who shared patient data from the Navy's Fleet Hospital 6.

This report has greatly benefited from the thoughtful review and comments of our two reviewers, COL (ret.) Paul DeBree and RAND colleague Jed Peters, which we gratefully acknowledge. Also, we would like to thank our RAND colleagues Michael Polich and Ron Sortor for their input and guidance throughout the course of this research.