Education and Training Initiatives
Education and Training InitiativesThere are a number of initiatives under way to incorporate OOTW into the education of AMEDD officers and enlisted personnel. Currently, AMEDD active-duty personnel receive some education on OOTW, although not all personnel get exposure nor receive the same level of detail, depending on where an individual is in his or her career and on the specific course.
Junior and senior enlisted personnel do not receive any instruction on OOTW in either the Basic Non-Commissioned Officer Course (BNCOC) or the Advanced Non-Commissioned Officer Course (ANCOC) or at the Sergeant Majors Academy.
AMEDD officers in the Officer Basic Course (OBC) receive a three-hour block of instruction on OOTW, with one-third of this time devoted to OOTW fundamentals (emphasis on environment, principles, and activities of the Army in operations other than war) and the remaining two-thirds focused on domestic support operations (the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS) and management of emergency health care during a national disaster).
At around the 3- to 5-year mark in an officer's career (senior 1st lieutenant, junior captain), he or she attends either the AMEDD Officers' Advanced Course (OAC) or the Combined Logistics Officers' Advanced Course (CLOAC). In the OAC (26-week course), officers receive 31 hours of instruction on OOTW, including two hours on low-intensity conflict as described in FM 100-5, three hours on CONUS OOTW operations, three hours on OCONUS OOTW operations, six hours of student briefings, and seventeen hours of OOTW practical exercise. As this course is currently being reengineered and shortened to 10 weeks, the AMEDD should ensure that this part of the curriculum remains strong. CLOAC also includes classroom instruction and a practical exercise on medical support for the full range of military operations, including OOTW.
The Combined Arms and Services Staff School (CAS3) comes at the 8- to 10-year mark in an officer's career and is aimed at preparing individuals for staff officer positions. CAS3 is taught in two phases, with Phase 1 being a 140-credit-hour correspondence course and Phase 2 taught at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas over the course of nine weeks. The only OOTW-type instruction presented during CAS3 is a two-day contingency operation planning exercise during the residence phase.
In the Command and General Staff Officer Course (CGSOC) (at around the 11- to 13-year mark in an officer's career), officers are trained to become field grade commanders and staff officers principally at the division and corps levels. For the active component, this course is taught in three terms, with 36 contact hours during the second core phase being devoted to OOTW operations. Subject matter includes an overview of the environment, root and cause of conflict, senior-level leadership in the joint arena, training for OOTW, introduction to OOTW analysis, counterinsurgency operations, security assistance, humanitarian and disaster relief operations, and peace support operations. During the second and third core phases, two OOTW elective courses are also available on health service support in force project operations (27-hour course emphasizing the joint medical support in OOTWs) and logistics in operations other than war (emphasis on logistics issues unique to OOTW and UN operations).
The Army War College is a year-long course designed to prepare senior officers for top leadership positions in the Army. Officers either attend a year-long course in residence at Carlisle Barracks, PA or complete a correspondence course that includes two 2-week resident phases at Carlisle Barracks. Two 3-hour blocks of instruction on OOTWs are presented in each option. The resident course also offers an elective on theater OOTW with emphasis on joint operations.
In addition, exportable training packages have been developed by the AMEDD Center and School to be sent to AMEDD commanders of deploying units participating in an OOTW. These separate training packages are available for each major type of OOTW and include information specific to the type of mission, operational details on health services support, law of land warfare and establishment of health service support policy, UN policy, and NGO interface.
In terms of combat training centers, at the NTC, medical play is limited to Echelons I and II; OOTW is not included. At the JRTC, although a number of the exercises deal with OOTW scenarios, they tend not to cover the range of OOTW medical issues outlined in this report. Further, although the medical forces that rotate through the JRTC go from platoon level (Echelon I) up through the hospital units (Echelon III), historically only one or two rotations out of twelve will involve Echelon III units. Also, because of budgetary constraints there is some discussion of curtailing altogether Echelon III medical unit participation at the JRTC.
Some of the coursework outlined above tends to be primarily descriptive in nature. We would contend that it is critical for the coursework to be problem oriented, focusing on specific issues and their solutions and including such topics as repatriation problems, ethical and treatment dilemmas, identification of and dealing with potential sources of mission creep, and understanding the critical determinants of the medical support requirements in OOTW. Commanders also need to be informed about UN organizations and procedures associated with UN-led operations.
Officers who typically command joint task forces have not been trained in depth on issues unique to OOTW missions to date. The reasons for this are severalfold. Today's senior officers (O-6 and above) typically have spent their Army career training and preparing for a major regional contingency or large-scale conventional warfare with the Soviet Union. Thus, all of their training has been geared toward this end. Also, the typical Army officer may have had little exposure or experience in dealing with the UN, NGOs, coalition forces, or other government entities (skills necessary in OOTW). Further, the military education system does not directly address the myriad of activities that must be accomplished by the JTF commander in an OOTW environment. Knowledge of UN organizations and procedures is one example.
To remedy this, several actions could be undertaken. One, the entire officer education system might include an integrated doctrinal approach to managing assets in an OOTW environment. Currently, only certain officers are receiving portions of OOTW doctrine in their military careers. The aim of the instruction should be to provide officers at all levels with the essential tools needed to plan, undertake, and lead such operations. This instruction should include lessons learned from recent OOTWs, as well as practical exercises. Two, education of noncommissioned officers (NCOs) in OOTW is also essential. Because of the role NCOs play in medical units, they too need to be aware of the OOTW principles outlined here and of the critical differences between operations other than war and combat missions.
 Interview with Ms. Jackson, Instructional Systems Specialist, AMEDD Non-Commissioned Officer Academy, 8 December 1994.