The purpose of this Perspective is to provide policymakers an overview of the deepfake threat. It first reviews the technology undergirding deepfakes and associated artificial intelligence (AI)–driven technologies that provide the foundation for deepfake videos, voice cloning, deepfake images, and generative text. It highlights the threats deepfakes pose, as well as factors that could mitigate such threats. The paper then reviews the ongoing efforts to detect and counter deepfakes and concludes with an overview of recommendations for policymakers. This Perspective is based on a review of published literature on deepfake- and AI-disinformation technologies. Moreover, leading experts in the disinformation field contributed valuable insights that helped shape the work.
Helmus, Todd C., Artificial Intelligence, Deepfakes, and Disinformation: A Primer. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2022. https://www.rand.org/pubs/perspectives/PEA1043-1.html.
Helmus, Todd C., Artificial Intelligence, Deepfakes, and Disinformation: A Primer, RAND Corporation, PE-A1043-1, July 2022. As of November 28, 2023: https://www.rand.org/pubs/perspectives/PEA1043-1.html