Federal Programs Supporting Educational Change

Vol. VII: Factors Affecting Implementation and Continuation

by Paul Berman, Milbrey Wallin McLaughlin, Gail V. Bass-Golod, Edward Pauly, Gail L. Zellman

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Presents findings of Phase II of RAND’s change-agent study, focusing on the continuation of innovations after federal grants terminate. The research comprised a survey of 100 continued Title III projects, fieldwork in 18 school districts, and statistical analyses. Among the strongest factors promoting continuation were: broad-scope projects, which stimulated teachers to expend extra effort and to change their teaching styles; the implementation strategies selected, particularly teacher training in the use of project methods and materials; staff support activities; teacher participation decisions; leadership and support of principals and project directors; and teachers’ sense of personal efficacy. Most continued projects remained in a “special” status; budgets were reduced and continuation was either pro forma or left up to individual teachers. Only a few innovations were integrated into regular operations at both the district and classroom levels.

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