Study of the effects of federal funds upon the viability of selected biomedical and behavioral disciplines based on multivariate analyses of a longitudinal database, supplemented by case study field trips to nine carefully selected universities (plus one pilot visit). In the quantitative analyses, we constructed models to trace the relationship of federal funding to indexes of academic department structure and function, i.e., Ph.D. production, graduate enrollment, faculty size, and other outside funds. We also studied the different patterns which held for public and private institutions, those with and without medical schools, and leading and lesser institutions. Federal funding was found to have a clear, strong and positive relationship to department structure and functioning. Through field trips we explored in depth the variety of institutional factors in universities that mediate the effects of federal research funds, and how strong these factors are in relation to federal policy.