Simulation Support of Large-Scale Exercises

A REFORGER Case Study

by Patrick D. Allen

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This report describes an analysis of the Caravan Guard (CG) 89 and Centurion Shield (CS) 90 exercises. The study examines four different exercise training modes (both live and simulated) employed in CG 89 and CS 90 exercises: field training exercise, command field exercise, command post exercise; and computer-assisted exercise. The analysis leads to three recommendations for future large-scale multi-echelon exercises. First, exercises should consist of a single training mode and that should be simulation. Second, if simulations become the primary mode, a number of limitations affecting the current family of simulations must be overcome. Broad areas needing improvement include the representation of the effect of combined arms, the types of battles, aspects of how the operational level of war is depicted, the "fog and friction of war," and intelligence functions and products. Third, whenever possible, exercises should include both Active and Reserve component units and forces and other services and nations.

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