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Research Questions

  1. How can organizations identify non-materiel solutions for improving their resilience?
  2. How can organizations assess the potential impacts of these actions?

Resilience is the ability of a system, architecture, or organization to maintain critical capabilities during and following a threat or disruption. Assuring resilience can be a costly endeavor, and it requires innovative approaches in a financially constrained environment. Often these innovative approaches lead to modifications of non-materiel aspects of a system or organization; such aspects include emergency response planning, organizational culture or structure, and training. The impact of these modifications is challenging to quantify.

This report is the result of a project that sought to identify non-materiel solutions for improving the resilience of the U.S. space enterprise and to develop an analytical approach for evaluating the impacts of the potential improvements. The authors conducted a review of industry methods for evaluating the materiel elements of space resilience and used concepts from those methods to develop a process for evaluating the non-materiel resilience of a system. The process and the tool they developed for performing resilience calculations and presenting the results — Resilience Assessment Process and Portfolio Option Reporting Tool, or RAPAPORT (available at — have broad applications to any organization seeking to enhance resilience.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter One


  • Chapter Two

    Review of Other Methods for Measuring Resilience of Space Systems

  • Chapter Three

    A Method for Assessing Resilience

  • Chapter Four

    The Portfolio Option Reporting Tool

Research conducted by

This research was sponsored by the commander, Air Force Space Command, and was conducted within the Force Modernization and Employment Program of RAND Project AIR FORCE.

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