Negotiation Strategies for Antiretroviral Drug Purchasers in the United States
Download eBook for Free
|PDF file||0.5 MB|
|PDF file||0.1 MB|
Antiretroviral treatment has transformed HIV from a death sentence to a chronic condition, allowing people with HIV to live longer and healthier lives. However, they face significant barriers to accessing and affording life-saving — but expensive — antiretroviral (ARV) medications. These barriers are particularly severe for low-income patients, and they disproportionately affect racial and ethnic minorities. High ARV prices create pressure for government insurers to contain costs either by rationing care or by restricting eligibility for public programs. Limited funding, coupled with a growing demand for HIV care and treatment, is likely to make programmatic decisions about who is covered become more difficult over time. Therefore, it is important to identify options for reducing the cost of providing ARVs to allow more people to receive treatment. This study examines a variety of options for negotiating lower ARV procurement costs in U.S. markets. A case-study approach is used to assess options that different stakeholders could use in negotiating ARV price discounts with drug manufacturers given the regulatory and market constraints that exist in the United States.
Table of Contents
Framework for Understanding How Prices for Antiretroviral Drugs Are Set
The ARV Market in the United States: Characteristics, Key Players, and Negotiating Mechanisms
Cross-National Comparisons of HIV Drug Financing
Policy Options for Negotiating ARV Prices in the United States and Implications of Health Reform
Major Changes Under the ACA That May Affect ARV Drug Costs
The research described in this report was sponsored by the AIDS Healthcare Foundation and was conducted within RAND Health, a unit of the RAND Corporation.
This report is part of the RAND Corporation Technical report series. RAND technical reports may include research findings on a specific topic that is limited in scope or intended for a narrow audience; present discussions of the methodology employed in research; provide literature reviews, survey instruments, modeling exercises, guidelines for practitioners and research professionals, and supporting documentation; or deliver preliminary findings. All RAND reports undergo rigorous peer review to ensure that they meet high standards for research quality and objectivity.
This document and trademark(s) contained herein are protected by law. This representation of RAND intellectual property is provided for noncommercial use only. Unauthorized posting of this publication online is prohibited; linking directly to this product page is encouraged. Permission is required from RAND to reproduce, or reuse in another form, any of its research documents for commercial purposes. For information on reprint and reuse permissions, please visit www.rand.org/pubs/permissions.
The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.