The European Commission aims to obtain an overview of the different sources of public R&D support in the EU, mechanisms used to channel this support and the contexts of their use. This study looks at differences and trends in R&D funding modalities at publicly supported research institutions. Modalities in this context refer both to channels by which support flows to research performers and details of mechanisms used to select researchers and contracts that guide their work. The analysis differentiated between participant in the R&D system and among different flows of funds, and was based on OECD and related international data, national and organization-level data, interviews with players, and other secondary analyses. Results aim to provide insight into changes in modality across countries and over time.