RAND Europe explored the nature of violence against healthcare, the impact of this violence, and corresponding interventions on a global scale – the first time an evidence review of this scale has been undertaken in this area.
Social media is increasingly being used by human and automated users to distort information, erode trust in democracy and incite extremist views. Our research produced a machine learning model that can successfully detect Russian trolls.
Looking to 2035, the Ministry of Defence could play a key role in developing robust policy and programming on climate change. Researchers identified six high-level recommendations to support the MOD in developing an approach to address climate-related issues.
While most transactions made with virtual coins are legitimate, cryptocurrencies have also been used for criminal purposes. Researchers found no evidence of widespread illicit use of Zcash, but that may be because malicious users do not fully understand its operating model.
Conventional arms control (CAC) was a crucial element of the negotiations that ended the Cold War peacefully. Today, however, the CAC regime is outdated and largely irrelevant. What new CAC measures could lower the risk of conflict in Europe?
Key NATO allies regard Norway as being able to ‘punch above its weight’ in the North Atlantic and High North regions, but Norway does face pressing political, strategic, and military challenges, as well as wider security threats to societal resilience.
An examination of the shortages and mismatches in EU defence-related skills found that a focus on cross-cutting technical skills, domain-specific skills, skills relating to new and emerging technologies, and soft skills could help the industry address existing and future skills gaps.
Researchers developed insights into the relationships between the economy and national security, focusing in particular on the characteristics and performance of the economy of the Netherlands and the consequences this may have for its national security.
Researchers identified four areas of potential savings that could result from cooperation among European Defence Agency member states in developing, acquiring, operating, and supporting light-weight and medium-weight multirole helicopter programmes.
The European Defence Agency noticed an opportunity to align their member states' armoured vehicle fleet procurement and development programmes and plans. Researchers identified five potential collaboration models that could offer financial, operational, and strategic benefits compared to purely national efforts.
A key challenge in counter violent extremism evaluation is the lack of commonly agreed metrics to measure behavioural changes in people. RAND Europe researchers developed a web-based framework that lists behavioural categories, attributes, and suggested measurement tools.
An update to the study on an EU Cyber Defence Centre for Common Security & Defence Policy crisis management operations helped inform a number of work and policy initiatives and contributed to the launch of the cyber education, training, exercise and evaluation platform at the European Security and Defence College.
Because economic incentives play a key role in whether users, vendors, finders and coordinators disclose hardware and software vulnerabilities once they have been discovered, governments should adopt a coordinated vulnerability disclosure policy.
The spread of social media in Africa has brought many economic and political benefits, while also equipping terrorist groups with a tool for recruitment and propaganda. Researchers examined the links between social media use and online radicalisation in six African countries, drawing on primary Twitter data analysis.
Initiatives to prevent and counter terrorism and violent extremism are rarely evaluated and are often designed on the basis of untested assumptions. Researchers developed and reviewed an inventory of 48 evaluations conducted between 2013 and 2017 to draw practical lessons and recommendations.
To help the EDA maintain key skills and competences across the defence sector, RAND Europe developed a taxonomy of skills in the governmental domain required for a functioning defence procurement system. The researchers also assessed the current demand and supply for those skills across Europe.
Using the GCSCC’s Cyber Security Capacity Maturity Model, researchers developed a proof-of-concept toolbox that presents guidelines and approaches for government officials and cybersecurity practitioners interested in cybersecurity capacity building.
A multi-disciplinary study on behalf of the European Defence Agency found the need for conventional weapons systems will persist and the need for cyberspace capabilities will increase. Also, more coordination of existing R&D programmes is needed across the various EDA member states.
A table-top exercise examined factors that could potentially upset Arctic cooperation in the coming decade. While there is potential for tensions to rise if nations in the Arctic region make claims on disputed resources, the exercise found that they are more likely to respect established international norms than attempt to circumvent them.
Terrorism is negatively associated with economic growth in Europe. Between 2004 and 2016, the 28 EU member states lost around €180 billion in GDP terms due to terrorist attacks, in addition to the human toll through loss-of-life and injuries.
The dark web is an enabler for the circulation of illegal weapons already on the black market, as well as a potential source of diversion for legally owned weapons. Although the arms trade is small in volume compared to other products trafficked online, its potential impact on international security is significant.
Within the European Common Security and Defence Policy context, many challenges preclude providing effective medical support to Light Footprint Operations. Improving standards for greater interoperability is one of many recommendations.
Violent radicalisation and extremism are one of the most severe and immediate security threats facing European society in the early 21st century. IMPACT Europe aimed to fill the gap in understanding of what works in tackling and preventing these phenomena.