Completed Research: Defence and Security

  • A hospital damaged in an attack on a U.S. military air base in Bagram, north of Kabul, Afghanistan, December 11, 2019, photo by Mohammad Ismail/Reuters

    Examining violence against healthcare

    01 Jul 2020

    RAND Europe explored the nature of violence against healthcare, the impact of this violence, and corresponding interventions on a global scale – the first time an evidence review of this scale has been undertaken in this area.

  • Red and green figures of people indicating influence on their surroundings, photo by Andrey Yalanskiy (Андрей Яланский)/Adobe Stock

    Using machine learning to detect malign information efforts online

    23 Jun 2020

    Social media is increasingly being used by human and automated users to distort information, erode trust in democracy and incite extremist views. Our research produced a machine learning model that can successfully detect Russian trolls.

  • A Merlin helicopter comes in to drop off a Remover 3.1 mast during a snowy morning whilst on a helicopter flight trial at JADTEU, RAF Brize Norton, photo by 1st SAC David Turnbull/Royal Air Force Open Government License

    Implications of climate change for UK defence and security

    17 Jun 2020

    Looking to 2035, the Ministry of Defence could play a key role in developing robust policy and programming on climate change. Researchers identified six high-level recommendations to support the MOD in developing an approach to address climate-related issues.

  • Futuristic digital business cryptocurrency candle chart, illustration by Eduard Muzhevskyi/Adobe Stock

    Exploring the criminal use of Zcash and cryptocurrencies

    06 May 2020

    While most transactions made with virtual coins are legitimate, cryptocurrencies have also been used for criminal purposes. Researchers found no evidence of widespread illicit use of Zcash, but that may be because malicious users do not fully understand its operating model.

  • The U.S. Army hosted a Russian Vienna Document inspection team to observe exercise Saber Guardian at Novo Selo Training Area, Bulgaria, 2017, photo by U.S. Army

    Conventional arms control in Europe needs a new approach

    27 Apr 2020

    Conventional arms control (CAC) was a crucial element of the negotiations that ended the Cold War peacefully. Today, however, the CAC regime is outdated and largely irrelevant. What new CAC measures could lower the risk of conflict in Europe?

  • Norwegian Coast rangers sailing outside of Harstad during exercise Cold Response 2020, photo by Emil Wenaas Larsen / Forsvaret (Norwegian Armed Forces)

    Deterrence and defence in NATO's north

    26 Mar 2020

    Key NATO allies regard Norway as being able to ‘punch above its weight’ in the North Atlantic and High North regions, but Norway does face pressing political, strategic, and military challenges, as well as wider security threats to societal resilience.

  • Engineer showing apprentice how to use drill in factory

    Building evidence on EU defence-related skills

    24 Feb 2020

    An examination of the shortages and mismatches in EU defence-related skills found that a focus on cross-cutting technical skills, domain-specific skills, skills relating to new and emerging technologies, and soft skills could help the industry address existing and future skills gaps.

  • Rotterdam skyline, photo by mihaiulia/Getty Images

    Economy and national security in the Netherlands

    14 Jan 2020

    Researchers developed insights into the relationships between the economy and national security, focusing in particular on the characteristics and performance of the economy of the Netherlands and the consequences this may have for its national security.

  • Silhouette of helicopter with soldiers conducting rescue operation

    Collaborative investment in military multirole helicopters can save money

    22 Jul 2019

    Researchers identified four areas of potential savings that could result from cooperation among European Defence Agency member states in developing, acquiring, operating, and supporting light-weight and medium-weight multirole helicopter programmes.

  • Dutch Army Open house / Open door Landmachtdagen 2012 in Oirschot

    Opportunities for collaborative armoured vehicle investment

    23 Jan 2019

    The European Defence Agency noticed an opportunity to align their member states' armoured vehicle fleet procurement and development programmes and plans. Researchers identified five potential collaboration models that could offer financial, operational, and strategic benefits compared to purely national efforts.

  • Working on a computer

    Violent Extremism Evaluation Measurement (VEEM) Framework

    14 Jan 2019

    A key challenge in counter violent extremism evaluation is the lack of commonly agreed metrics to measure behavioural changes in people. RAND Europe researchers developed a web-based framework that lists behavioural categories, attributes, and suggested measurement tools.

  • Armed soldier polices cyber space

    Updating the Study on the Development of a European Cyber Defence Centre

    21 Dec 2018

    An update to the study on an EU Cyber Defence Centre for Common Security & Defence Policy crisis management operations helped inform a number of work and policy initiatives and contributed to the launch of the cyber education, training, exercise and evaluation platform at the European Security and Defence College.

  • Graphic concept representing a security vulnerability search

    The economics of vulnerability disclosure

    19 Dec 2018

    Because economic incentives play a key role in whether users, vendors, finders and coordinators disclose hardware and software vulnerabilities once they have been discovered, governments should adopt a coordinated vulnerability disclosure policy.

  • Hand silhouette working on a laptop keyboard

    Social media in Africa presents double-edged sword

    05 Nov 2018

    The spread of social media in Africa has brought many economic and political benefits, while also equipping terrorist groups with a tool for recruitment and propaganda. Researchers examined the links between social media use and online radicalisation in six African countries, drawing on primary Twitter data analysis.

  • Dutch police on security patrol

    How to evaluate counterterrorism policies and interventions

    25 Oct 2018

    Initiatives to prevent and counter terrorism and violent extremism are rarely evaluated and are often designed on the basis of untested assumptions. Researchers developed and reviewed an inventory of 48 evaluations conducted between 2013 and 2017 to draw practical lessons and recommendations.

  • Manager touching AR screen interface

    Ensuring key skills and competences for defence in the governmental domain

    17 Aug 2018

    To help the EDA maintain key skills and competences across the defence sector, RAND Europe developed a taxonomy of skills in the governmental domain required for a functioning defence procurement system. The researchers also assessed the current demand and supply for those skills across Europe.

  • Global internet security illustration

    Toolbox aims to support cybersecurity capacity building

    02 Aug 2018

    Using the GCSCC’s Cyber Security Capacity Maturity Model, researchers developed a proof-of-concept toolbox that presents guidelines and approaches for government officials and cybersecurity practitioners interested in cybersecurity capacity building.

  • Cyber data map of Europe

    Exploring Europe's defence capability requirements for 2035 and beyond

    06 Jul 2018

    A multi-disciplinary study on behalf of the European Defence Agency found the need for conventional weapons systems will persist and the need for cyberspace capabilities will increase. Also, more coordination of existing R&D programmes is needed across the various EDA member states.

  • Civilian and serviceman shaking hands

    How resilience affects the transition experiences of UK Service leavers

    28 Jun 2018

    Most UK Service leavers experience successful transitions to civilian life, but some face challenges. Our researchers looked into the role of resilience in successful transitions.

  • Secretary Tillerson Addresses the 10th Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting in Fairbanks

    The future of Arctic cooperation in a changing strategic environment

    08 Jun 2018

    A table-top exercise examined factors that could potentially upset Arctic cooperation in the coming decade. While there is potential for tensions to rise if nations in the Arctic region make claims on disputed resources, the exercise found that they are more likely to respect established international norms than attempt to circumvent them.

  • Flowers lying on the grass after a terrorist atack in London

    The cost of terrorism in Europe

    06 Jun 2018

    Terrorism is negatively associated with economic growth in Europe. Between 2004 and 2016, the 28 EU member states lost around €180 billion in GDP terms due to terrorist attacks, in addition to the human toll through loss-of-life and injuries.

  • Border fence between USA and Mexico at El Paso/Juarez

    Challenges and Opportunities for Operationalising Border Security Research

    26 Mar 2018

    RAND Europe examined how border security research is set up, managed and operationalised in the EU, US, Canada and Australia in order to understand how these processes could be improved in the EU.

  • Laptop and cursor with a gun icon pattern

    Dark web enables illegal arms trade in Europe

    20 Jul 2017

    The dark web is an enabler for the circulation of illegal weapons already on the black market, as well as a potential source of diversion for legally owned weapons. Although the arms trade is small in volume compared to other products trafficked online, its potential impact on international security is significant.

  • Medical staff with the UK's Army Medical Services rush a mock casualty into a resuscitation suite during a training exercise

    Providing Medical Support to Light Footprint Operations

    09 Jun 2017

    Within the European Common Security and Defence Policy context, many challenges preclude providing effective medical support to Light Footprint Operations. Improving standards for greater interoperability is one of many recommendations.

  • IMPACT Europe logo

    What works in tackling violent radicalisation and extremism?

    25 May 2017

    Violent radicalisation and extremism are one of the most severe and immediate security threats facing European society in the early 21st century. IMPACT Europe aimed to fill the gap in understanding of what works in tackling and preventing these phenomena.