Completed Research: Defence and Security

  • Silhouette of helicopter with soldiers conducting rescue operation

    Collaborative investment in military multirole helicopters can save money

    22 Jul 2019

    Researchers identified four areas of potential savings that could result from cooperation among European Defence Agency member states in developing, acquiring, operating, and supporting light-weight and medium-weight multirole helicopter programmes.

  • Dutch Army Open house / Open door Landmachtdagen 2012 in Oirschot

    Opportunities for collaborative armoured vehicle investment

    23 Jan 2019

    The European Defence Agency noticed an opportunity to align their member states' armoured vehicle fleet procurement and development programmes and plans. Researchers identified five potential collaboration models that could offer financial, operational, and strategic benefits compared to purely national efforts.

  • Working on a computer

    Violent Extremism Evaluation Measurement (VEEM) Framework

    14 Jan 2019

    A key challenge in counter violent extremism evaluation is the lack of commonly agreed metrics to measure behavioural changes in people. RAND Europe researchers developed a web-based framework that lists behavioural categories, attributes, and suggested measurement tools.

  • Armed soldier polices cyber space

    Updating the Study on the Development of a European Cyber Defence Centre

    21 Dec 2018

    An update to the study on an EU Cyber Defence Centre for Common Security & Defence Policy crisis management operations helped inform a number of work and policy initiatives and contributed to the launch of the cyber education, training, exercise and evaluation platform at the European Security and Defence College.

  • Graphic concept representing a security vulnerability search

    The economics of vulnerability disclosure

    19 Dec 2018

    Because economic incentives play a key role in whether users, vendors, finders and coordinators disclose hardware and software vulnerabilities once they have been discovered, governments should adopt a coordinated vulnerability disclosure policy.

  • Hand silhouette working on a laptop keyboard

    Social media in Africa presents double-edged sword

    05 Nov 2018

    The spread of social media in Africa has brought many economic and political benefits, while also equipping terrorist groups with a tool for recruitment and propaganda. Researchers examined the links between social media use and online radicalisation in six African countries, drawing on primary Twitter data analysis.

  • Dutch police on security patrol

    How to evaluate counterterrorism policies and interventions

    25 Oct 2018

    Initiatives to prevent and counter terrorism and violent extremism are rarely evaluated and are often designed on the basis of untested assumptions. Researchers developed and reviewed an inventory of 48 evaluations conducted between 2013 and 2017 to draw practical lessons and recommendations.

  • Manager touching AR screen interface

    Ensuring key skills and competences for defence in the governmental domain

    17 Aug 2018

    To help the EDA maintain key skills and competences across the defence sector, RAND Europe developed a taxonomy of skills in the governmental domain required for a functioning defence procurement system. The researchers also assessed the current demand and supply for those skills across Europe.

  • Global internet security illustration

    Toolbox aims to support cybersecurity capacity building

    02 Aug 2018

    Using the GCSCC’s Cyber Security Capacity Maturity Model, researchers developed a proof-of-concept toolbox that presents guidelines and approaches for government officials and cybersecurity practitioners interested in cybersecurity capacity building.

  • Cyber data map of Europe

    Exploring Europe's defence capability requirements for 2035 and beyond

    06 Jul 2018

    A multi-disciplinary study on behalf of the European Defence Agency found the need for conventional weapons systems will persist and the need for cyberspace capabilities will increase. Also, more coordination of existing R&D programmes is needed across the various EDA member states.

  • Civilian and serviceman shaking hands

    How resilience affects the transition experiences of UK Service leavers

    28 Jun 2018

    Most UK Service leavers experience successful transitions to civilian life, but some face challenges. Our researchers looked into the role of resilience in successful transitions.

  • Secretary Tillerson Addresses the 10th Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting in Fairbanks

    The future of Arctic cooperation in a changing strategic environment

    08 Jun 2018

    A table-top exercise examined factors that could potentially upset Arctic cooperation in the coming decade. While there is potential for tensions to rise if nations in the Arctic region make claims on disputed resources, the exercise found that they are more likely to respect established international norms than attempt to circumvent them.

  • Flowers lying on the grass after a terrorist atack in London

    The cost of terrorism in Europe

    06 Jun 2018

    Terrorism is negatively associated with economic growth in Europe. Between 2004 and 2016, the 28 EU member states lost around €180 billion in GDP terms due to terrorist attacks, in addition to the human toll through loss-of-life and injuries.

  • Border fence between USA and Mexico at El Paso/Juarez

    Challenges and Opportunities for Operationalising Border Security Research

    26 Mar 2018

    RAND Europe examined how border security research is set up, managed and operationalised in the EU, US, Canada and Australia in order to understand how these processes could be improved in the EU.

  • Laptop and cursor with a gun icon pattern

    Dark web enables illegal arms trade in Europe

    20 Jul 2017

    The dark web is an enabler for the circulation of illegal weapons already on the black market, as well as a potential source of diversion for legally owned weapons. Although the arms trade is small in volume compared to other products trafficked online, its potential impact on international security is significant.

  • Medical staff with the UK's Army Medical Services rush a mock casualty into a resuscitation suite during a training exercise

    Providing Medical Support to Light Footprint Operations

    09 Jun 2017

    Within the European Common Security and Defence Policy context, many challenges preclude providing effective medical support to Light Footprint Operations. Improving standards for greater interoperability is one of many recommendations.

  • IMPACT Europe logo

    What works in tackling violent radicalisation and extremism?

    25 May 2017

    Violent radicalisation and extremism are one of the most severe and immediate security threats facing European society in the early 21st century. IMPACT Europe aimed to fill the gap in understanding of what works in tackling and preventing these phenomena.

  • Airbus A400M transport aircraft

    Defence Equipment Cost Escalation Requires Response Strategies

    08 Mar 2017

    The challenge of affordability is shaping the defence acquisition environment in most Western countries. Researchers identified several strategies that are transferrable from one country to another and from civil sectors to defence.

  • Brexit concept, with British and EU flags painted on a cracked wall

    Defence and Security after Brexit

    06 Mar 2017

    Brexit may pose more immediate challenges to UK and European security rather than to defence. However, both are likely to be subject to long-term uncertainty.

  • Syrian and Iraqi refugees arrive from Turkey to Skala Sykamias, Lesbos island, Greece, where Spanish volunteers help them in October 2015

    Mediterranean Foresight Forum

    26 Jan 2017

    The Mediterranean Foresight Forum (MFF) was a RAND-funded effort to monitor current affairs, analyse future scenarios and simulate policy options to support the implementation of comprehensive responses to complex challenges in the Mediterranean region.

  • Focus on Cybersecurity

    04 Jan 2017

    Cybersecurity has risen to become a prominent issue of national and global security for governments and international organisations worldwide. This paper looks at the issues and details RAND Europe's expertise and work in the area.

  • Small arms and rocket-propelled grenades found by Marines from Bravo Company, 1st Battalion, 3rd Marine Regiment in a house in Fallujah

    How to Achieve a Globalised Arms Trade Treaty (ATT)

    28 Oct 2016

    The challenges identified in South and Southeast Asian countries in relation to ATT accession or ratification are predominantly issues at the ‘system level’, rather than specific capability or capacity gaps. Solving them requires a process-oriented approach, which has to be contextualised at the national level to ensure validity and sustainability.

  • Moral compass image from RR1505

    Understanding the Moral Dimension of Conflict

    24 Oct 2016

    Cyber and autonomous capabilities challenge the core principles of morality frameworks in a number of ways. While a prominent question in the public debate is whether morality can be reduced to an algorithm, the body of academic work on the subject is more nuanced

  • NATO headquarters

    Examining Perceptions of the US, NATO, and European Security

    21 Oct 2016

    RAND Europe conducted an examination of European NATO member states' perceptions of the role of NATO and threats to the Alliance, as well as NATO capabilities. The goal was to help shape expectations about the Alliance, its role and capabilities.

  • A Royal Navy sailor is reunited with his family after a long deployment with HMS Sutherland overseas

    Little Research Exists on UK Service Leavers’ Transition to Civilian Life

    08 Sep 2016

    The Forces in Mind Trust (FiMT) supports families of UK Service leavers as they transition to civilian life. To help the FiMT, more research is needed in the areas of family engagement, family breakdown, housing and spousal employment.